Training the work force
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8. Training the Work Force. Challenges. Determine when employees need training and the best type of training given a company’s circumstances. Recognize the characteristics that make training programs successful. Weigh the costs and benefits of a computer-based training program.

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Training the Work Force

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Training the work force

8

Training the Work Force


Challenges

Challenges

  • Determinewhen employees need training and the best type of training given a company’s circumstances.

  • Recognize the characteristics that make training programs successful.

  • Weigh the costs and benefits of a computer-based training program.

  • Design job aids as complements or alternatives to training.


Training

Training

The process of providing employees with specific skills or helping them correct deficiencies in their performance.


Development

Development

An effort to provide employees with the abilities the organization will need in the future.


Training versus development

Training versus Development

Training

Development

Focus

Scope

Time Frame

Goal

Current job

Individual employees

Immediate

Fix current skill deficit

Current and future jobs

Work group organization

Long term

Prepare for future work

demands


Challenges in training

Challenges in Training

  • Is training the solution to the problem?

  • Are the goals of training clear and realistic?

  • Is training a good investment?

  • Will the training work?


The training process

The Training Process

  • Needs Assessment Phase

  • Organization Needs

  • Task Needs

  • Person Needs

  • Development and Conduct

  • of Training

  • Location

  • Presentation

  • Type

Evaluation


Example of development of behavioral training objectives

Example of Development of Behavioral Training Objectives

Overall

Objective

Increase Interpersonal Sensitivity

Specific Content

Dimensions

Listening Skills

Feedback Skills

Example

Behavioral

Objectives

1. Supervisor summarizes

by key points of action

plan at end of

discussion.

2. Supervisor does not

interrupt the speech of

others.

3.Supervisor provides an

estimate of how long

before a request can be

filled.

1.Supervisor describes

the issue in concrete

terms.

2.Supervisor attacks the

problem, not the

performer.

3.Supervisor provides

feedback in a timely

fashion.


Guidelines for using on the job training

Guidelines for Using On-the-Job Training

Managers Should Select OJT When:

  • Participatory learning is essential.

  • One-on-one training is necessary.

  • Five or fewer employees need training.

  • Taking employees out of the work environment for training is not cost-effective.

  • Classroom instruction is not appropriate.

  • Equipment and safety restrictions make other training methods ineffective.

  • Frequent changes in standard operation procedures allow minimal time for retraining.

  • Work in progress cannot be interrupted.

  • The task for which the training is designed is infrequently performed.

  • Immediate changes are necessary to meet new safety requirements.


Guidelines for using on the job training cont

Guidelines for Using On-the-Job Training (cont.)

Managers Should Select OJT When:

  • A defined proficiency level or an individual performance test is required for certification or qualification.

    What OJT Should Cover:

  • Large or secured equipment.

  • Delicate or calibrated instruments.

  • Tools and equipment components of a complex system.

  • Delicate or dangerous procedures.

  • Classified information retained in a secured area.


Computer based training benefits and drawbacks

Computer-based Training Benefits and Drawbacks

Benefits

Drawbacks

More cost-effective than classroom training

Time efficient

Targeted at crucial skills

Allows employees to progress at their own pace

Doesn’t hamper productivity

Many programs do not assess employees’ progress so managers cannot measure the employee’s skill level.

Many programs lack a feedback mechanism to help employees determine how much they’ve learned.


Sources of customer dissatisfaction with ibm telephone service

Sources of Customer Dissatisfaction with IBM Telephone Service

Voice Systems

and Message

Expectations

18.1%

Calls Not

Returned

24.1%

Operator

Assistance

6.7%

Excessive

Rings 4.3%

Getting to

Knowledgeable

Person or

Backup

44%

Telephone

Tag

2.4%


Ibm senior vice president s memo to all managers

IBM Senior Vice President’s Memo to All Managers

INTEROFFICE MEMO

Overall, the rating of our telephone

service by customers and internal

users is poor. Together, we are

going to fix this problem, and fix

it fast.


Steps to skill improvement at ibm

Steps to Skill Improvement at IBM

  • 1. Build in commitment.

    • Gain support of management.

  • 2. Thoroughly analyze the problem.

    • Is it important?

    • What is the real problem?

  • 3. Gain line support.

  • 4. Develop training strategies.

    • Is there more than one group of employees that needs training?

    • Design material appropriate to each group’s needs and motivation levels.

  • 5. Develop motivational strategies.

    • Take steps to heighten awareness of issues.

    • Signal importance of issue through measurement and recognition programs.


Techniques to increase creativity

Techniques to Increase Creativity

Creativity can be learned and developed. The following techniques can be used to improve a trainee’s skill in generating innovative ideas and solutions to problems.

1.Analogies and Metaphors—drawing comparisons or finding similarities can improve insight into a situation or problem.

2.Free Association—freely associating words to describe a problem can lead to unexpected solutions.

3.Personal Analogy—trying to see oneself as the problem can lead to fresh perspectives and, possibly, effective solutions.

4. Mind Mapping—generating topics and drawing lines to represent the relationships among them can help to identify all the issues and their linkages.


Suggestions for the successful implementation of a literacy program

Suggestions for the Successful Implementation of a Literacy Program

  • Be sensitive in your approach to skills assessment.

  • Tie the curriculum as closely as possible to what workers do.

  • Include both managers and employees in the development stage of the program.

  • Align the program with company objectives and job requirements.

  • Be flexible about when and where training is held and provide incentives for participation.

  • Provide for self-paced learning.

  • Use a variety of training tools.

  • Provide ongoing feedback.

  • Ensure employee confidentiality.

  • Get the support of top management for the program.


Four measurement levels employed by garrett engine division

Four Measurement Levels Employed by Garrett Engine Division

Level

Type of Measurement

1

2

3

4

Participants’ reaction to the training at the time of

the training.

Participants’ learning of the content of the training.

Participants’ use of their new skills and knowledge

back on the job.

Company’s return on the training investment.


Performance levels of training and control groups at garrett engine division

Performance Levels of Training and Control Groups at Garrett Engine Division

Response

Time

Completion

Time

Total Down

Time

Estimated

Cost

Training Group

Before training

After training

Control Group1

Before training

After training

1 The control group was not trained. The numbers cited here for the control

group were compiled before and after the training group underwent training.

4.8 hours

4.1 hours

4.4 hours

4.4 hours

13.6 hours

11.7 hours

11.6 hours

11.7 hours

18.4 hours

15.8 hours

16.0 hours

16.1 hours

$1,341

$1,156

$1,165

$1,211


Roi after four average workweeks at garrett engine division

ROI After Four Average Workweeks at Garrett Engine Division

x

x

=

-

=

6,745 = 1.26 =126% ROI

5,355

$55

55

4

$12,100

$5,355

$6,745

(average savings per job)

(jobs per week)

(number of weeks)

(benefits)

(cost of training)

(net benefits)


Socialization do it yourself

Socialization—Do It Yourself!

WHAT’S THE PATH TO SUCCESS?

Get to know people in the organization, especially those who can tell you what it takes to succeed. Make it a goal to get to know four new people in the first two weeks on the job.

GET FEEDBACK.

Have a meeting with your boss within the first month to get an informal sense of how you are performing so far.

DO IT.

Pick a reasonable project and complete it within your first two months on the job. Completing the project will not only show initiative, it will probably introduce you to other parts of the organization and further immerse you in the culture.


Socialization do it yourself cont

Socialization—Do It Yourself! (cont.)

WHAT DO YOU DO?

Write you own job description within the first two months on the job. Indicate what it is you really do in this job. This description can be used as a way to check with others, including your boss, as to whether that is what you should be doing. At the very least, people may be impressed with your motivation and diligence.

RENEW AND GO FOR IT AGAIN.

Treat months three and four like the first two months on the job. Commit to reenergizing yourself and renewing your enthusiasm for your new job. Get to know even more people, pick another project, and get more feedback!


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