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Practical Applications for Managing Biological Risks. Vector Transmission Beef Producers. Biological Risk Management (BRM). Overall process of awareness education, evaluation, and management Designed to improve infection/disease control Foreign and domestic diseases

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Practical applications for managing biological risks

Practical Applications for Managing Biological Risks

Vector Transmission

Beef Producers


Biological risk management brm
Biological Risk Management (BRM)

  • Overall process of awareness education, evaluation, and management

  • Designed to improve infection/disease control

    • Foreign and domestic diseases

  • Provide tools to minimize risk

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Biological risk management brm1
Biological Risk Management (BRM)

  • Disease risk cannot be totally eliminated

    • Animal, its environment

    • Decrease exposure

    • Infectious agentinteractions

  • Minimize threat to animals and humans

  • No one-size-fits-all answer

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Routes of transmission
Routes of Transmission

  • Spread of disease agents

    • Animal animal

    • Animal human

  • Different modes of transmission

  • Aerosol

  • Direct contact

  • Fomite

  • Oral

  • Vector-borne

  • Zoonotic

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Vector transmission
Vector Transmission

  • Insect

  • Acquires pathogen from one animal

  • Transmits to another animal

    • Biological vectors

      • Midges, ticks, mosquitoes

    • Mechanical vectors

      • Flies

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Selected diseases spread by vectors

Foreign diseases

Akabane

Bluetongue

Heartwater

Lumpy skin disease

Rift Valley fever

Present in U.S.

Anaplasmosis

Anthrax

Contagious mastitis

Pink eye (Moraxella bovis)

Vesicular stomatitis

Selected Diseases Spread by Vectors

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Routes of transmission1
Routes of Transmission

  • Apply to all infectious agents

  • Animal must be exposed to develop disease

  • Understand different routes of transmission = Gain control

  • Risk areas must be identified

    • Design protocols to minimize exposure

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Disease transmission
Disease Transmission

  • Animals may not exhibit obvious clinical signsof disease

  • Awareness of all routes of transmission is essential

    • Develop strategy to minimize disease risk for livestock operation

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps
General Prevention Steps

Overview

  • Farm perimeter

  • Animal identification

  • Animal health

  • Sick/dead animals

  • Isolation/quarantine

  • Supply handling

  • Neonatal management

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps1
General Prevention Steps

  • Limit contact with animals

    • Neighbor’s livestock

    • Wildlife, birds

    • Roaming cats, dogs

  • Maintain fences

  • Establish biosecurity protocols for delivery vehicles, personnel

  • Lock gates

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention
General Prevention

  • Identify individual animals

  • Important for:

    • Communicating health status

    • Treatment needs

    • Location on farm

    • Record keeping

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps2
General Prevention Steps

  • Keep health records on every animal

  • Review vaccination and treatment programs

    • Annually, bi-annually

    • Protocol versus actual

  • Investigate unusual signs, unresponsive cases

    • Neurologic, downers, sudden death

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps3
General Prevention Steps

  • Train farm personnel to report sick animals

    • Inspect animals daily

    • Clean equipment, boots, clothing

  • Euthanize terminally ill animals promptly and appropriately

    • Removed or rendered

  • Perform necropsy on animals that died from unknown causes

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps4
General Prevention Steps

  • Isolate ill animals immediately

    • No shared ventilation, direct contact with other animals

  • Quarantine newly introduced animals

    • New purchases, returning animals

  • Time determined with veterinarian

  • Test for key diseases before placing with rest of herd

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps5
General Prevention Steps

  • Store non-refrigeratedvaccines and antibiotics out of sunlight as it can deactivate them

  • Monitor refrigeration temperature monthly

    • Ideal temp 36-46oF

  • Restrict access to medication to only properly trained personnel

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


General prevention steps6
General Prevention Steps

  • Ensure adequate ingestion of disease-free colostrum in first 6 hours of life

  • Prevent contact with older calves, contaminated environments

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006



Vector control1
Vector Control

  • Source reduction

    • Flies, midges, mosquitoes

  • Control adults

    • Flies, mosquitoes

  • Minimize animal interaction

    • Ticks, midges

  • Treatment protocols

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Source reduction
Source Reduction

  • Flies

    • 4 life stages

      • Egg, larva, pupa, adult

      • Cycle as short as 10 days in warm weather

    • Lay eggs in organic matter

      • Manure, feed, wet bedding

      • Disturb weekly to prevent development

    • Clean up spilled feed, feed bunks

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Source reduction1
Source Reduction

  • Fly larvicides

    • Feed additives

      • All animals on farm, 3 weeks prior to season

    • Parasitic wasps feed on fly pupa

    • Predatory mites, beetles feed on larva

  • Adulticides

    • Knockdowns for high concentrations

    • Residuals for barn walls, ceilings

    • Baits, fly traps in conjunction with other methods

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Control adult flies

Target key areas on farm

Animals

Barns

Control Adult Flies

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Disease transmission1
Disease Transmission

  • Flies can spread:

    • Contagious mastitis

    • Dermatophilus (rain rot)

    • Grubs

    • Lumpy skin disease

    • Pink eye (Moraxella bovis)

    • Screwworm

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Source reduction2
Source Reduction

  • Biting midges

    • Lay eggs in decaying vegetation,wet soil, mud

    • Larvae need moisture, organic matter

    • Adults fly 1-2 milesfrom source

    • Manage settling ponds, stagnant water

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Disease transmission2
Disease Transmission

  • Biting midges can spread:

    • Bluetongue virus

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Source reduction3

Larva

Source Reduction

  • Mosquitoes

    • Lay single eggs in damp soil

    • Lay eggs on water surface

  • Larvae, pupae live upside down in water;

    • Breathe via siphon, trumpet at water surface

    • Larvae need organic matter for development

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Disease transmission3
Disease Transmission

  • Mosquitoes can spread:

    • West Nile virus

    • Rift Valley fever

    • Lumpy skin disease

    • Vesicular stomatitis

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Source reduction4
Source Reduction

  • Eliminate mosquito larval habitats

  • Fill tree holes

  • Empty containers that hold water weekly

  • Circulate lagoons, water tanks

  • Drill holes in or use half tires for silage piles

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Mosquito larvicides
Mosquito Larvicides

  • Use when source reduction and biological control not feasible

  • More effective and target-specific

  • Less controversial than adulticides

  • Applied to smaller geographic areas

    • Larvae concentrate in specific locations

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Control adult mosquitoes
Control Adult Mosquitoes

  • Insecticides/adulticides

  • Less efficient than source reduction

  • Require multiple applications

  • Require proper environmental conditions

    • Light wind, no rain

  • Small droplets to contact adults

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Minimize animal interaction
Minimize Animal Interaction

  • Ticks

    • Mow pastures

    • Acaricides

  • Midges

    • No effective animal treatment

    • Increase distance from source

    • Confine animals

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Disease transmission4
Disease Transmission

  • Ticks can spread:

    • Anaplasmosis

    • Babesiosis

    • Dermatophilus(rain rot)

    • Heartwater

    • Q fever

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Summary
Summary

  • Vector borne transmission occurs everyday on farms

    • Mastitis, pink eye, anaplasmosis

  • Foreign animal diseases can also be spread via vectors

    • Rift Valley Fever, heartwater

  • Prevention steps as described here can help minimize your risk

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Key learning objectives
Key Learning Objectives

  • Biological risk management is important

  • All diseases are transmitted by a few common routes

  • Disease risk can be managed

  • Awareness education is essential

  • You play a critical role!

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Questions
Questions?

www.cfsph.iastate.edu/BRM

[email protected]

515-294-7189

CFSPH

Iowa State University, College of Veterinary Medicine

Ames, IA 50011

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

Development of this presentationwas funded by a grant from the USDA Risk Management Agencyto the Center for Food Securityand Public Healthat Iowa State University.

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


Acknowledgments1
Acknowledgments

Author: Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH

Reviewer: James Roth, DVM, PhD

Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2006


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