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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1). Energy efficiency Advantages of reducing energy waste: Quick and clean Usually the cheapest to provide more energy Reduce pollution and degradation Slow global warming

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Chapter 16 energy efficiency and renewable energy

Chapter 16

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy


We waste huge amounts of energy 1
We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1)

  • Energy efficiency

  • Advantages of reducing energy waste:

    • Quick and clean

    • Usually the cheapest to provide more energy

    • Reduce pollution and degradation

    • Slow global warming

    • Increase economic and national security


We waste huge amounts of energy 2
We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (2)

  • Four widely used devices that waste energy

    • Incandescent light bulb

    • Motor vehicle with internal combustion engine

    • Nuclear power plant

    • Coal-fired power plant




We can save energy and money in industry and utilities 1
We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (1)

  • Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP)

    • Two forms of energy from same fuel source

  • Replace energy-wasting electric motors

  • Recycling materials

  • Switch from low-efficiency incandescent lighting to higher-efficiency fluorescent and LED lighting


LEDs

Fig. 16-4, p. 401


We can save energy and money in industry and utilities 2
We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (2)

  • Electrical grid system: outdated and wasteful

  • Utility companies switching from promote use of energy to promoting energy efficiency

    • Spurred by state utility commissions


Case study saving energy and money with a smarter electrical grid
Case Study: Saving Energy and Money with a Smarter Electrical Grid

  • Smart grid

    • Ultra-high-voltage

    • Super-efficient transmission lines

    • Digitally controlled

    • Responds to local changes in demand and supply

    • Two-way flow of energy and information

    • Smart meters show consumers how much energy each appliance uses

  • U.S cost -- $200-$800 billion; save $100 billion/year


Proposed u s smart grid
Proposed U.S. Smart Grid Electrical Grid

Figure 20, Supplement 8


We can save energy and money in transportation
We Can Save Energy and Money Electrical Gridin Transportation

  • Corporate average fuel standards (CAFE) standards

    • Fuel economy standards lower in the U.S. countries

    • Fuel-efficient cars are on the market

  • Hidden prices in gasoline: $12/gallon

    • Car manufacturers and oil companies lobby to prevent laws to raise fuel taxes

  • Should there be a feebate?



More energy efficient vehicles are on the way
More Energy-Efficient Vehicles Are Other Countrieson the Way

  • Superefficient and ultralight cars

  • Gasoline-electric hybrid car

  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

  • Energy-efficient diesel car

  • Electric vehicle with a fuel cell


Solutions a hybrid gasoline electric engine car and a plug in hybrid car
Solutions: A Hybrid-Gasoline-Electric Engine Car and a Plug-in Hybrid Car

Fig. 16-6, p. 403


Science focus the search for better batteries
Science Focus: The Search for Better Batteries Plug-in Hybrid Car

  • Current obstacles

    • Storage capacity

    • Overheating

    • Flammability

    • Cost

  • In the future

    • Lithium-ion battery

    • Viral battery

    • Ultracapacitor


We can design buildings that save energy and money
We Can Design Buildings That Save Energy and Money Plug-in Hybrid Car

  • Green architecture

  • Living or green roofs

  • Superinsulation

  • U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)


A green roof in chicago
A Green Roof in Chicago Plug-in Hybrid Car

Fig. 16-8, p. 405


A thermogram shows heat loss
A Thermogram Shows Heat Loss Plug-in Hybrid Car

Fig. 16-9, p. 406



Why are we still wasting so much energy
Why Are We Still Wasting So You LiveMuch Energy?

  • Energy remains artificially cheap

    • Government subsidies

    • Tax breaks

    • Prices don’t include true cost

  • Few large and long-lasting incentives

    • Tax breaks

    • Rebates

    • Low-interest loans


We can use renewable energy to provide heat and electricity
We Can Use Renewable Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity You Live

  • Renewable energy

    • Solar energy: direct or indirect

    • Geothermal energy

  • Benefits of shifting toward renewable energy

  • Renewable energy cheaper if we eliminate

    • Inequitable subsidies

    • Inaccurate prices

    • Artificially low pricing of nonrenewable energy


We can heat buildings and water with solar energy
We Can Heat Buildings and Water with Solar Energy You Live

  • Passive solar heating system

  • Active solar heating system



Passive solar home in colorado
Passive Solar Home in Colorado You Live

Fig. 16-12, p. 410




World availability of direct solar energy
World Availability of Direct Solar Energy China

Figure 22, Supplement 8


U s availability of direct solar energy
U.S. Availability of Direct Solar Energy China

Figure 23, Supplement 8


We can cool buildings naturally
We Can Cool Buildings Naturally China

  • Technologies available

    • Open windows when cooler outside

    • Use fans

    • Superinsulation and high-efficiency windows

    • Overhangs or awnings on windows

    • Light-colored roof

    • Geothermal pumps


We can use sunlight to produce high temperature heat and electricity
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce High-Temperature Heat and Electricity

  • Solar thermal systems

    • Central receiver system

    • Collect sunlight to boil water, generate electricity

    • 1% of world deserts could supply all the world’s electricity

    • Require large amounts of water – could limit

      • Wet cooling

      • Dry cooling

  • Low net energy yields


Solar thermal power in california desert
Solar Thermal Power in California Desert Electricity

Fig. 16-15, p. 411



Solutions solar cooker in india
Solutions: Solar Cooker in India Electricity

Fig. 16-17, p. 412


We can use sunlight to produce electricity 1
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (1) Electricity

  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells (solar cells)

    • Convert solar energy to electric energy

  • Design of solar cells

    • Sunlight hits cells and releases electrons into wires

  • Benefits of using solar cells

  • Solar-cell power plants around the world



Solar cell array in niger west africa
Solar Cell Array in Niger, West Africa Electricity

Fig. 16-19, p. 413


Solar cell power plant in arizona
Solar-Cell Power Plant in Arizona Electricity

Fig. 16-20, p. 414


We can use sunlight to produce electricity 2
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (2) Electricity

  • Key problems

    • High cost of producing electricity

    • Need to be located in sunny desert areas

    • Fossil fuels used in production

    • Solar cells contain toxic materials

  • Will the cost drop with

    • Mass production

    • New designs

    • Government subsidies and tax breaks


We can use sunlight to produce electricity 3
We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (3) Electricity

  • 2040: could solar cells produce 16%?

  • Nanosolar: California (U.S.)

  • Germany: huge investment in solar cell technology

  • General Electric: entered the solar cell market


Global production of solar electricity
Global Production of Solar Electricity Electricity

Figure 11, Supplement 9


Trade offs solar cells
Trade-Offs: Solar Cells Electricity

Fig. 16-21, p. 414


We can produce electricity from falling and flowing water
We Can Produce Electricity from Falling and Flowing Water Electricity

  • Hydropower

    • Uses kinetic energy of moving water

    • Indirect form of solar energy

    • World’s leading renewable energy source used to produce electricity

  • Advantages and disadvantages

  • Micro-hydropower generators


Tradeoffs dams and reservoirs
Tradeoffs: Dams and Reservoirs Electricity

Fig. 13-13, p. 328


Trade offs large scale hydropower advantages and disadvantages
Trade-Offs: Large-Scale Hydropower, Advantages and Disadvantages

Fig. 16-22, p. 415


Tides and waves can be used to produce electricity
Tides and Waves Can Be Used to Produce Electricity Disadvantages

  • Produce electricity from flowing water

    • Ocean tides and waves

  • So far, power systems are limited

  • Disadvantages

    • Few suitable sites

    • High costs

    • Equipment damaged by storms and corrosion


Using wind to produce electricity is an important step toward sustainability 1
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (1)

  • Wind: indirect form of solar energy

    • Captured by turbines

    • Converted into electrical energy

  • Second fastest-growing source of energy

  • What is the global potential for wind energy?

  • Wind farms: on land and offshore


World electricity from wind energy
World Electricity from Wind Energy toward Sustainability (1)

Figure 12, Supplement 9


Solutions wind turbine and wind farms on land and offshore
Solutions: Wind Turbine and Wind Farms on Land and Offshore toward Sustainability (1)

Fig. 16-23, p. 417


Wind turbine
Wind Turbine toward Sustainability (1)

Fig. 16-24, p. 417


Using wind to produce electricity is an important step toward sustainability 2
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (2)

  • Countries with the highest total installed wind power capacity

    • Germany

    • United States

    • Spain

    • India

    • Denmark

  • Installation is increasing in several other countries


Using wind to produce electricity is an important step toward sustainability 3
Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (3)

  • Advantages of wind energy

  • Drawbacks

    • Windy areas may be sparsely populated – need to develop grid system to transfer electricity

    • Winds die down; need back-up energy

    • Storage of wind energy

    • Kills migratory birds

    • “Not in my backyard”


Trade offs wind power
Trade-Offs: Wind Power toward Sustainability (3)

Fig. 16-25, p. 418


United states wind power potential
United States Wind Power Potential toward Sustainability (3)

Figure 24, Supplement 8


We can get energy by burning solid biomass
We Can Get Energy by Burning Solid Biomass toward Sustainability (3)

  • Biomass

    • Plant materials and animal waste we can burn or turn into biofuels

  • Production of solid mass fuel

    • Plant fast-growing trees

    • Biomass plantations

    • Collect crop residues and animal manure

  • Advantages and disadvantages


Trade offs solid biomass
Trade-Offs: Solid Biomass toward Sustainability (3)

Fig. 16-26, p. 420


We can convert plants and plant wastes to liquid biofuels 1
We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (1)

  • Liquid biofuels

    • Biodiesel

    • Ethanol

  • Biggest producers of biofuel

    • The United States

    • Brazil

    • The European Union

    • China


We can convert plants and plant wastes to liquid biofuels 2
We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (2)

  • Major advantages over gasoline and diesel fuel produced from oil

    • Biofuel crops can be grown almost anywhere

    • No net increase in CO2 emissions if managed properly

    • Available now


We can convert plants and plant wastes to liquid biofuels 3
We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (3)

  • Studies warn of problems:

    • Decrease biodiversity

    • Increase soil degrading, erosion, and nutrient leaching

    • Push farmers off their land

    • Raise food prices

    • Reduce water supplies, especially for corn and soy


Case study is biodiesel the answer
Case Study: Is Biodiesel the Answer? (3)

  • Biodiesel production from vegetable oil from various sources

  • 95% produced by the European Union

  • Subsidies promote rapid growth in United States

  • Advantages and disadvantages


Trade offs biodiesel
Trade-Offs: Biodiesel (3)

Fig. 16-27, p. 421


World ethanol production
World Ethanol Production (3)

Figure 13, Supplement 9


Bagasse is sugarcane residue
Bagasse is Sugarcane Residue (3)

Fig. 16-28, p. 421



Trade offs ethanol fuel
Trade-Offs: Ethanol Fuel (3)

Fig. 16-30, p. 423


Case study getting gasoline and diesel fuel from algae and bacteria 1
Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (1)

  • Algae remove CO2 and convert it to oil

    • Not compete for cropland = not affect food prices

    • Wastewater/sewage treatment plants

    • Could transfer CO2 from power plants

  • Algae challenges

    • Need to lower costs

    • Open ponds vs. bioreactors

    • Affordable ways of extracting oil

    • Scaling to large production


Case study getting gasoline and diesel fuel from algae and bacteria 2
Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (2)

  • Bacteria: synthetic biology

    • Convert sugarcane juice to biodiesel

    • Need large regions growing sugarcane

  • Producing fuels from algae and bacteria can be done almost anywhere


Getting energy from the earth s internal heat 1
Getting Energy from the Earth’s Bacteria (2)Internal Heat (1)

  • Geothermal energy: heat stored in

    • Soil

    • Underground rocks

    • Fluids in the earth’s mantle

  • Geothermal heat pump system

    • Energy efficient and reliable

    • Environmentally clean

    • Cost effective to heat or cool a space



Getting energy from the earth s internal heat 2
Getting Energy from the Earth’s Cool a House Internal Heat (2)

  • Hydrothermal reservoirs

    • U.S. is the world’s largest producer

  • Hot, dry rock

  • Geothermal energy problems

    • High cost of tapping hydrothermal reservoirs

    • Dry- or wet-steam geothermal reservoirs could be depleted

    • Could create earthquakes


Geothermal sites in the united states
Geothermal Sites in the United States Cool a House

Figure 26, Supplement 8


Geothermal sites worldwide
Geothermal Sites Worldwide Cool a House

Figure 25, Supplement 8


Geothermal power plant in iceland
Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland Cool a House

Fig. 16-32, p. 425


Trade offs geothermal energy
Trade Offs: Geothermal Energy Cool a House

Fig. 16-33, p. 426


Will hydrogen save us 1
Will Hydrogen Save Us? (1) Cool a House

  • Hydrogen as a fuel

    • Eliminate most of the air pollution problems

    • Reduce threats of global warming

  • Some challenges

    • Chemically locked in water and organic compounds = net negative energy yield

    • Expensive fuel cells are the best way to use hydrogen

    • CO2 levels dependent on method of hydrogen production


Will hydrogen save us 2
Will Hydrogen Save Us? (2) Cool a House

  • Net negative energy yield

  • Production and storage of H2

  • Hydrogen-powered vehicles: prototypes available

  • Can we produce hydrogen on demand?

  • Larger fuel cells – fuel-cell stacks



Trade offs hydrogen advantages and disadvantages
Trade-Offs: Hydrogen, Advantages and Disadvantages Their Protons

Fig. 16-35, p. 428


Solutions decentralized power system
Solutions: Decentralized Power System Their Protons

Fig. 16-36, p. 430



Economics politics education and sustainable energy resources
Economics, Politics, Education, and Sustainable Energy Resources

  • Government strategies:

    • Keep the prices of selected energy resources artificially low to encourage their use

    • Keep energy prices artificially high for selected resources to discourage their use

    • Consumer education



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