Chapter 16 energy efficiency and renewable energy
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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1). Energy efficiency Advantages of reducing energy waste: Quick and clean Usually the cheapest to provide more energy Reduce pollution and degradation Slow global warming

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Chapter 16 Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

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Chapter 16

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (1)

  • Energy efficiency

  • Advantages of reducing energy waste:

    • Quick and clean

    • Usually the cheapest to provide more energy

    • Reduce pollution and degradation

    • Slow global warming

    • Increase economic and national security

We Waste Huge Amounts of Energy (2)

  • Four widely used devices that waste energy

    • Incandescent light bulb

    • Motor vehicle with internal combustion engine

    • Nuclear power plant

    • Coal-fired power plant

Flow of Commercial Energy through the U.S. Economy

Fig. 16-2, p. 399

Advantages of Reducing Energy Waste

Fig. 16-3, p. 399

We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (1)

  • Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP)

    • Two forms of energy from same fuel source

  • Replace energy-wasting electric motors

  • Recycling materials

  • Switch from low-efficiency incandescent lighting to higher-efficiency fluorescent and LED lighting


Fig. 16-4, p. 401

We Can Save Energy and Money in Industry and Utilities (2)

  • Electrical grid system: outdated and wasteful

  • Utility companies switching from promote use of energy to promoting energy efficiency

    • Spurred by state utility commissions

Case Study: Saving Energy and Money with a Smarter Electrical Grid

  • Smart grid

    • Ultra-high-voltage

    • Super-efficient transmission lines

    • Digitally controlled

    • Responds to local changes in demand and supply

    • Two-way flow of energy and information

    • Smart meters show consumers how much energy each appliance uses

  • U.S cost -- $200-$800 billion; save $100 billion/year

Proposed U.S. Smart Grid

Figure 20, Supplement 8

We Can Save Energy and Money in Transportation

  • Corporate average fuel standards (CAFE) standards

    • Fuel economy standards lower in the U.S. countries

    • Fuel-efficient cars are on the market

  • Hidden prices in gasoline: $12/gallon

    • Car manufacturers and oil companies lobby to prevent laws to raise fuel taxes

  • Should there be a feebate?

Average Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Sold in the U.S. and Other Countries

Fig. 16-5, p. 402

More Energy-Efficient Vehicles Are on the Way

  • Superefficient and ultralight cars

  • Gasoline-electric hybrid car

  • Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

  • Energy-efficient diesel car

  • Electric vehicle with a fuel cell

Solutions: A Hybrid-Gasoline-Electric Engine Car and a Plug-in Hybrid Car

Fig. 16-6, p. 403

Science Focus: The Search for Better Batteries

  • Current obstacles

    • Storage capacity

    • Overheating

    • Flammability

    • Cost

  • In the future

    • Lithium-ion battery

    • Viral battery

    • Ultracapacitor

We Can Design Buildings That Save Energy and Money

  • Green architecture

  • Living or green roofs

  • Superinsulation

  • U.S. Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

A Green Roof in Chicago

Fig. 16-8, p. 405

A Thermogram Shows Heat Loss

Fig. 16-9, p. 406

Individuals Matter: Ways in Which You Can Save Money Where You Live

Fig. 16-10, p. 407

Why Are We Still Wasting So Much Energy?

  • Energy remains artificially cheap

    • Government subsidies

    • Tax breaks

    • Prices don’t include true cost

  • Few large and long-lasting incentives

    • Tax breaks

    • Rebates

    • Low-interest loans

We Can Use Renewable Energy to Provide Heat and Electricity

  • Renewable energy

    • Solar energy: direct or indirect

    • Geothermal energy

  • Benefits of shifting toward renewable energy

  • Renewable energy cheaper if we eliminate

    • Inequitable subsidies

    • Inaccurate prices

    • Artificially low pricing of nonrenewable energy

We Can Heat Buildings and Water with Solar Energy

  • Passive solar heating system

  • Active solar heating system

Solutions: Passive and Active Solar Heating for a Home

Fig. 16-11, p. 409

Passive Solar Home in Colorado

Fig. 16-12, p. 410

Rooftop Solar Hot Water on Apartment Buildings in Kunming, China

Fig. 16-13, p. 410

Trade-Offs: Passive or Active Solar Heating

Fig. 16-14, p. 411

World Availability of Direct Solar Energy

Figure 22, Supplement 8

U.S. Availability of Direct Solar Energy

Figure 23, Supplement 8

We Can Cool Buildings Naturally

  • Technologies available

    • Open windows when cooler outside

    • Use fans

    • Superinsulation and high-efficiency windows

    • Overhangs or awnings on windows

    • Light-colored roof

    • Geothermal pumps

We Can Use Sunlight to Produce High-Temperature Heat and Electricity

  • Solar thermal systems

    • Central receiver system

    • Collect sunlight to boil water, generate electricity

    • 1% of world deserts could supply all the world’s electricity

    • Require large amounts of water – could limit

      • Wet cooling

      • Dry cooling

  • Low net energy yields

Solar Thermal Power in California Desert

Fig. 16-15, p. 411

Trade-Offs: Solar Energy for High Temperature Heat and Electricity

Fig. 16-16, p. 412

Solutions: Solar Cooker in India

Fig. 16-17, p. 412

We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (1)

  • Photovoltaic (PV) cells (solar cells)

    • Convert solar energy to electric energy

  • Design of solar cells

    • Sunlight hits cells and releases electrons into wires

  • Benefits of using solar cells

  • Solar-cell power plants around the world

Solutions: Solar Cells on Rooftop and for Many Purposes

Fig. 16-18, p. 413

Solar Cell Array in Niger, West Africa

Fig. 16-19, p. 413

Solar-Cell Power Plant in Arizona

Fig. 16-20, p. 414

We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (2)

  • Key problems

    • High cost of producing electricity

    • Need to be located in sunny desert areas

    • Fossil fuels used in production

    • Solar cells contain toxic materials

  • Will the cost drop with

    • Mass production

    • New designs

    • Government subsidies and tax breaks

We Can Use Sunlight to Produce Electricity (3)

  • 2040: could solar cells produce 16%?

  • Nanosolar: California (U.S.)

  • Germany: huge investment in solar cell technology

  • General Electric: entered the solar cell market

Global Production of Solar Electricity

Figure 11, Supplement 9

Trade-Offs: Solar Cells

Fig. 16-21, p. 414

We Can Produce Electricity from Falling and Flowing Water

  • Hydropower

    • Uses kinetic energy of moving water

    • Indirect form of solar energy

    • World’s leading renewable energy source used to produce electricity

  • Advantages and disadvantages

  • Micro-hydropower generators

Tradeoffs: Dams and Reservoirs

Fig. 13-13, p. 328

Trade-Offs: Large-Scale Hydropower, Advantages and Disadvantages

Fig. 16-22, p. 415

Tides and Waves Can Be Used to Produce Electricity

  • Produce electricity from flowing water

    • Ocean tides and waves

  • So far, power systems are limited

  • Disadvantages

    • Few suitable sites

    • High costs

    • Equipment damaged by storms and corrosion

Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (1)

  • Wind: indirect form of solar energy

    • Captured by turbines

    • Converted into electrical energy

  • Second fastest-growing source of energy

  • What is the global potential for wind energy?

  • Wind farms: on land and offshore

World Electricity from Wind Energy

Figure 12, Supplement 9

Solutions: Wind Turbine and Wind Farms on Land and Offshore

Fig. 16-23, p. 417

Wind Turbine

Fig. 16-24, p. 417

Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (2)

  • Countries with the highest total installed wind power capacity

    • Germany

    • United States

    • Spain

    • India

    • Denmark

  • Installation is increasing in several other countries

Using Wind to Produce Electricity Is an Important Step toward Sustainability (3)

  • Advantages of wind energy

  • Drawbacks

    • Windy areas may be sparsely populated – need to develop grid system to transfer electricity

    • Winds die down; need back-up energy

    • Storage of wind energy

    • Kills migratory birds

    • “Not in my backyard”

Trade-Offs: Wind Power

Fig. 16-25, p. 418

United States Wind Power Potential

Figure 24, Supplement 8

We Can Get Energy by Burning Solid Biomass

  • Biomass

    • Plant materials and animal waste we can burn or turn into biofuels

  • Production of solid mass fuel

    • Plant fast-growing trees

    • Biomass plantations

    • Collect crop residues and animal manure

  • Advantages and disadvantages

Trade-Offs: Solid Biomass

Fig. 16-26, p. 420

We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (1)

  • Liquid biofuels

    • Biodiesel

    • Ethanol

  • Biggest producers of biofuel

    • The United States

    • Brazil

    • The European Union

    • China

We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (2)

  • Major advantages over gasoline and diesel fuel produced from oil

    • Biofuel crops can be grown almost anywhere

    • No net increase in CO2 emissions if managed properly

    • Available now

We Can Convert Plants and Plant Wastes to Liquid Biofuels (3)

  • Studies warn of problems:

    • Decrease biodiversity

    • Increase soil degrading, erosion, and nutrient leaching

    • Push farmers off their land

    • Raise food prices

    • Reduce water supplies, especially for corn and soy

Case Study: Is Biodiesel the Answer?

  • Biodiesel production from vegetable oil from various sources

  • 95% produced by the European Union

  • Subsidies promote rapid growth in United States

  • Advantages and disadvantages

Trade-Offs: Biodiesel

Fig. 16-27, p. 421

World Ethanol Production

Figure 13, Supplement 9

Bagasse is Sugarcane Residue

Fig. 16-28, p. 421

Natural Capital: Rapidly Growing Switchgrass

Fig. 16-29, p. 423

Trade-Offs: Ethanol Fuel

Fig. 16-30, p. 423

Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (1)

  • Algae remove CO2 and convert it to oil

    • Not compete for cropland = not affect food prices

    • Wastewater/sewage treatment plants

    • Could transfer CO2 from power plants

  • Algae challenges

    • Need to lower costs

    • Open ponds vs. bioreactors

    • Affordable ways of extracting oil

    • Scaling to large production

Case Study: Getting Gasoline and Diesel Fuel from Algae and Bacteria (2)

  • Bacteria: synthetic biology

    • Convert sugarcane juice to biodiesel

    • Need large regions growing sugarcane

  • Producing fuels from algae and bacteria can be done almost anywhere

Getting Energy from the Earth’s Internal Heat (1)

  • Geothermal energy: heat stored in

    • Soil

    • Underground rocks

    • Fluids in the earth’s mantle

  • Geothermal heat pump system

    • Energy efficient and reliable

    • Environmentally clean

    • Cost effective to heat or cool a space

Natural Capital: A Geothermal Heat Pump System Can Heat or Cool a House

Fig. 16-31, p. 425

Getting Energy from the Earth’s Internal Heat (2)

  • Hydrothermal reservoirs

    • U.S. is the world’s largest producer

  • Hot, dry rock

  • Geothermal energy problems

    • High cost of tapping hydrothermal reservoirs

    • Dry- or wet-steam geothermal reservoirs could be depleted

    • Could create earthquakes

Geothermal Sites in the United States

Figure 26, Supplement 8

Geothermal Sites Worldwide

Figure 25, Supplement 8

Geothermal Power Plant in Iceland

Fig. 16-32, p. 425

Trade Offs: Geothermal Energy

Fig. 16-33, p. 426

Will Hydrogen Save Us? (1)

  • Hydrogen as a fuel

    • Eliminate most of the air pollution problems

    • Reduce threats of global warming

  • Some challenges

    • Chemically locked in water and organic compounds = net negative energy yield

    • Expensive fuel cells are the best way to use hydrogen

    • CO2 levels dependent on method of hydrogen production

Will Hydrogen Save Us? (2)

  • Net negative energy yield

  • Production and storage of H2

  • Hydrogen-powered vehicles: prototypes available

  • Can we produce hydrogen on demand?

  • Larger fuel cells – fuel-cell stacks

A Fuel Cell Separates the Hydrogen Atoms’ Electrons from Their Protons

Fig. 16-34, p. 427

Trade-Offs: Hydrogen, Advantages and Disadvantages

Fig. 16-35, p. 428

Solutions: Decentralized Power System

Fig. 16-36, p. 430

Solutions: Making the Transition to a More Sustainable Energy Future

Fig. 16-37, p. 431

Economics, Politics, Education, and Sustainable Energy Resources

  • Government strategies:

    • Keep the prices of selected energy resources artificially low to encourage their use

    • Keep energy prices artificially high for selected resources to discourage their use

    • Consumer education

What Can you Do? Shifting to More Sustainable Energy Use

Fig. 16-38, p. 432

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