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“Basic Research Needs” Workshops Superconductivity & Solid State Lighting Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting February 16, 2006 Harriet Kung. Basic Energy Sciences Serving the Present, Shaping the Future. http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/. 1.5. 380. -- CO 2

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slide1

“Basic Research Needs” Workshops

Superconductivity

&

Solid State Lighting

Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Meeting

February 16, 2006

Harriet Kung

Basic Energy Sciences

Serving the Present, Shaping the Future

http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/

slide2

1.5

380

-- CO2

-- Global Mean Temp

360

1.0

25.00

340

World Energy Demand

0.5

total

320

20.00

Temperature (°C)

Atmospheric CO2 (ppmv)

0

300

15.00

- 0.5

280

TW

industrial

260

10.00

- 1.0

developing

240

50

- 1.5

US

5.00

World Fuel Mix 2001

1000

2000

1200

1800

1600

1400

oil

ee/fsu

Year AD

40

0.00

2030

1970

1990

2010

30

coal

%

gas

20

renew

nucl

10

0

~85% fossil

Energy Security - The Terawatt Challenge

Fossil fuels provide about 85% of the world’s energy. Although fossil reserves may last for another 100 years, we must seek alternative energy sources because:

  • The largest reserves petroleum, reside in politically unstable regions of the world.
  • The production and release of CO2 pose the risk of climate change/global warming

Current World Energy Demand: ~13 TW, could double by 2050 & triple by 2100

slide3

BES Energy Security Plan

“Considering the urgency of the energy problem, the magnitude of the needed scientific breakthroughs, and the historic rate of scientific discovery, current efforts will likely be too little, too late. Accordingly, BESAC believes that a new national energy research program is essential and must be initiated with the intensity and commitment of the Manhattan Project, and sustained until this problem is solved.”

Workshop: October 21-25, 2002

Report: March 2003

Follow-on focused workshops seek to define the basic research needed to overcome both short-term technology showstoppers and long-term scientific grand challenges.

slide4

Renewables

Hydropower

Biomass

Geothermal

Wind

Solar

Ocean

A Comprehensive Decades-to-Century Energy Security Plan

Research for a Secure Energy Future

Supply, Distribution, Consumption, and Carbon Management

Decision Science and Complex Systems Science

Distribution/Storage

Energy Consumption

Carbon Energy Sources

Carbon Management

No-net-carbon Energy Sources

Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Stewardship

Nuclear Fission

Coal

Electric Grid

Transportation

CO2 Sequestration

Nuclear Fusion

Geologic

Petroleum

Electric Storage

Buildings

Terrestrial

Hydrogen

Industry

Natural Gas

Oceanic

Carbon Recycle

Alternate Fuels

Oil shale, tar sands, hydrates,…

Global Climate Change Science

BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESServing the Present, Shaping the Future

slide5
Workshop Chair: Millie Dresselhaus (MIT)

Co-Chairs: George Crabtree (ANL)

Michelle Buchanan (ORNL)

Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage, and UseMay 13-15, 2003

Breakout Sessions:

Hydrogen Production

Tom Mallouk, PSU & Laurie Mets, U. Chicago

Hydrogen Storage and Distribution

Kathy Taylor, GM (retired) & Puru Jena, VCU

Fuel Cells and Novel Fuel Cell Materials

Frank DiSalvo, Cornell & Tom Zawodzinski, CWRU

High priority research areas as identified by the workshop report:

- Novel Materials for Hydrogen Storage

- Membranes for Separation, Purification, and Ion Transport

- Design of Catalysts at the Nanoscale

- Solar Hydrogen Production

- Bio-Inspired Materials and Processes

Report: August 2003

slide6

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization Workshop

April 21-24, 2005

Workshop Chair:Nate Lewis, Caltech

Co-chair:George Crabtree, ANL

Panel Chairs:

Solar Electric: Art Nozik (NREL)

Solar Fuels: Michael Wasielewski (Northwestern)

Crosscutting & Solar Thermal: Paul Alivisatos (LBNL)

Plenary Speakers:

J. Mazer, DOE/EERE; M. Hoffert, NYU; T. Feist, GE

200 attendees- universities, national labs, industry, Federal agencies and foreign scientists

Workshop Charge

To identify basic research needs and opportunities in solar electric, fuels, thermal and related areas, with a focus on new, emerging and scientifically challenging areas that have the potential for significant impact in science and technologies.

slide7

BES Solar Energy Utilization Workshop Report

“Sunlight is a compelling solution to our need for clean, abundant sources of energy in the future. Huge gap between our present use of solar energy and its enormous undeveloped potential defines a grand challenge in energy research.

Much of the researchers’ optimism is based on the continuing, rapid worldwide progress in nanoscience and molecular biology.  Powerful new methods of nanoscale fabrication, characterization, and simulation - using tools that were not available as little as five years ago - create new opportunities for understanding and manipulating the molecular and electronic pathways of solar energy conversion. Additional optimism arises from impressive strides in molecular biology that will soon bring the secrets of photosynthesis and natural bio-catalysis into sharp focus.”

Workshop: April 2005

Report: July 2005

http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/files/SEU_rpt.pdf

slide8

Renewables

Hydropower

Biomass

Geothermal

Wind

Solar

Ocean

Basic Research Needs for Superconductivity Workshop

Research for a Secure Energy Future

Supply, Distribution, Consumption, and Carbon Management

Decision Science and Complex Systems Science

Distribution/Storage

Energy Consumption

Carbon Energy Sources

Carbon Management

No-net-carbon Energy Sources

Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Stewardship

Nuclear Fission

Coal

Electric Grid

Transportation

CO2 Sequestration

Nuclear Fusion

Geologic

Petroleum

Electric Storage

Buildings

Terrestrial

Hydrogen

Industry

Natural Gas

Oceanic

Carbon Recycle

Alternate Fuels

Oil shale, tar sands, hydrates,…

Global Climate Change Science

BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESServing the Present, Shaping the Future

slide9

2003

1913

1973

1972

1987

Superconductivity: Frontier of Discovery-Class Science

Giaver

Josephson

Müller

Bednorz

Onnes

BCS

Abrikosov

Ginzburg

Leggett

Cuprate

HTS

Müller &

Bednorz

Bardeen

Cooper

Schreiffer

theory

Discovery

Hg

Onnes

Josephson

tunneling

Meissner

Ochsenfeld

Ginzburg

Landau

Abrikosov

vortices

NaCoO2

• H2O

MgB2

1911

1933

1950

1957

1957

1962

1986

2001

2003

microscopic theory

phonon pairing

layered metals

exotic pairing

vortex melting

glasses/dynamics

two

gaps

water

as a

structural

element

phenomenology

transport

thermodynamics

electrodynamics

flux patterns

(Courtesy of G. Crabtree)

slide10

American Superconductor

Superconductivity: Use-inspired Research for Energy Applications

Energy Distribution

Electricity losses in the grid account for >10% of all electricity generated.

Transmission limitations increase blackout risks.

Superconductors can transmit electricity with near perfect efficiency and much higher capacity.

5-MW superconductor motor

Energy Production and Consumption

70% smaller & lighter than conventional motors with all cooling systems figured in

Superconducting materials provide higher efficiency in performance, size/weight reduction and better voltage regulation for power generators and motors for transportation needs.

HTS generators

1/2 to 2/3 the losses of a conventional generator

retain high efficiency down to 5% of the rated load

(Courtesy of G. Crabtree)

slide11

BES Superconductivity Workshop Chairs and Charge

Chair:

Dr. John Sarrao

Los Alamos National Laboratory

Co-Chair:

Dr. Wai-Kwong Kwok

Argonne National Laboratory

Workshop Charge:

To identify basic research needs and opportunities in high temperature superconductivity with a focus on new, emerging, and scientifically challenging areas that have the potential to have significant impact in science and energy relevant technologies, including electricity transmission and electric grid.

slide12

BES Superconductivity Workshop Breakout Panels and Sub-panels

Fundamental Material IssuesIvan Bozovic (Brookhaven)

  • Improving known superconductors
  • Novel fabrication/manipulations
  • Technologically relevant synthesis
  • Engineering current

Physical PhenomenaSeamus Davis (Cornell); Leonardo Civale (LANL)

  • Underlying mechanisms and their observable manifestations
  • Vortex phenomenology
  • Emerging tools

Cross-Cutting

Theory Igor Mazin (NRL)

  • Mechanisms, conventional and unconventional
  • Computational superconductivity
  • Translating fundamentals to applications

Applications Dave Christen (ORNL)

  • Disruptive Technologies
  • Smart and fast-reacting grid
  • Magnet applications

(DRAFT)

slide13

BES Superconductivity Workshop Key Dates

2005 October Workshop planning

2005 December Finalize Charge and Chairs

2006 January Panel chairs and structure

2006 February Technology Office briefing & panelist invitations

2006 March-April Technology Perspective draft

2006 May 8-10 Workshop

2006 June-July Workshop draftReport

2006 August Release final Workshop Report

slide14

BES Superconductivity Workshop Logistics

Workshop Date:May 8-10, 2006

Location:Sheraton National Hotel, Arlington, VA

(shuttle service to Pentagon City Metrorail Station)

  • Plenary Speakers:
  • Paul Chu (Houston/Hong Kong)
  • George Crabtree (ANL)
  • ZX Shen (Stanford)
  • Mike Norman (ANL)
    • Alex Malozemoff (AMSC)
  • DOE Technology Program Overview:
  • Dr. James Daley (DOE/OE)
  • BES Coordinator:Jim Horwitz

BESAC members are welcome to attend.

slide15

Renewables

Hydropower

Biomass

Geothermal

Wind

Solar

Ocean

Basic Research Needs for Solid State Lighting Workshop

Research for a Secure Energy Future

Supply, Distribution, Consumption, and Carbon Management

Decision Science and Complex Systems Science

Distribution/Storage

Energy Consumption

Carbon Energy Sources

Carbon Management

No-net-carbon Energy Sources

Energy Conservation, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Stewardship

Nuclear Fission

Coal

Electric Grid

Transportation

CO2 Sequestration

Nuclear Fusion

Geologic

Petroleum

Electric Storage

Buildings

Terrestrial

Hydrogen

Industry

Natural Gas

Oceanic

Carbon Recycle

Alternate Fuels

Oil shale, tar sands, hydrates,…

Global Climate Change Science

BASIC ENERGY SCIENCESServing the Present, Shaping the Future

slide16

1000

U.S. Energy Consumption

~96 Quads

100

~37 Quads

Energy

Energy Consumption (Quads)

Electricity

10

Illumination

42% Incandescent

41% Fluorescent

17% HID

~8 Quads

Projected

1

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

Year

Lighting is a Large Fraction of Energy Consumption

Efficiencies of Energy

Technologies in Buildings

Heating: 70-80%

Electrical Motors: 85-95%

Incandescent Lighting: ~5%

Fluorescent Lighting: ~25%

Metal Halide Lighting: ~30%

Lighting consumes ~20% of U.S electricity and yet has very low efficiency

Basic Energy Sciences

Serving the Present, Shaping the Future

slide17

Cree XLampTM

UDC PHOLEDTM

Solid State Lighting: Semiconductor-Based Lighting Technology

Inorganic Light Emitting Diodes

(LEDs)

Organic Light Emitting Diodes

(OLEDs)

  • III-V semiconductors-based device
  • High brightness point sources
  • Potential high efficiency & long lifetime
  • Organic semiconductors-based device
  • Large area diffuse sources
  • Thin and flexible
  • Ease of fabrication

Current LEDs are predominantly in mono-chrome or niche applications.

High brightness, broad-band white light is needed for general illumination applications.

slide18

Solid State Lighting Offers Great Potential for Energy Savings

2020 Target 50%

25% - 30%

~25%

~5%

  • 50% conversion efficiency (200 lm/W) in SSL in 2025 could lead to:
  • Reduced electricity consumption (525 TW-hr/Yr) and cost ($35 B/Yr)
  • Decrease in new power plant needs (75 GW) and CO2 emission (87 Mtons)

Ref: J.Y. Tsao, Laser Focus World, May 2003 and references therein

slide19

BES Solid State Lighting Workshop Chairs and Charge

Chair:

Dr. Julia Phillips

Sandia National Laboratories

Co-Chair:

Dr. Paul Burrows

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Workshop Charge:

To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying light emitting diode and related technologies, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges with potential for significant long-term impact on energy-efficient and productivity-enhancing solid state lighting.

Highlighted areas will include organic and inorganic materials and nanostructure physics and chemistry, photon manipulation, wavelength down/up conversion, and novel materials and approaches.

slide20

BES SSL Workshop Breakout Panels and Sub-panels

LED Science Robert Davis (CMU) & Jerry Simmons (SNL)

LED synthesis and properties

Carrier transport, injection, doping and recombination

Light extraction and stimulated emission

Wavelength conversion and color mixing

Materials packaging issues

OLED ScienceGeorge Malliaras (Cornell) & Franky So (U Florida)

OLED synthesis and properties

Carrier energetics, injection and transport

Photo-physics

Device architectures and light management

Cross-Cutting and Novel Materials/Optical Physics

Jim Misewich (BNL), Arto Nurmikko (Brown) & Darryl Smith (LANL)

Materials interfaces and new materials systems

Electronic excitations, dynamics and energetics

Photon manipulation and management

Tools for solid-state lighting research (theoretical and experimental)

(DRAFT)

slide21

BES SSL Workshop Key Dates

2005 October Workshop planning start

2005 December Charge and Chairs

2006 January Panel chairs, date and location

2006 February Panel structure and panelist invitations

2006 March Technology Office briefing

2006 April Technology Perspective draft

2006 May 22-24 Workshop

2006 June-July Workshop Report full draft

2006 August Release final Workshop Report

slide22

BES Solid State Lighting Workshop Logistics

  • Workshop Date:May 22-24, 2006
  • Location:Marriott Bethesda, Pooks Hill, Washington DC
  • (Shuttle service between hotel and Red Line - Medical Center Station)
  • Proposed Program:
    • May 22 AM Plenary Opening Session
    • May 22 PM – May 23 PM Breakout Panel Discussions
    • May 24 AM Plenary Closing Session
    • May 24 PM – May 25 Report Writing by Core Group

Plenary Speakers:

LED Perspective: George Craford (LumiLeds)

OLED Perspective: Alan Heeger (UCSB)

DOE/EERE SSL Program Overview:Jim Brodrick (DOE/EERE)

BES Coordinator:Jeff Tsao

BESAC members are welcome to attend.

slide23

Workshop Output

  • The workshop output will be a concise and authoritative report suitable for wide distribution.
  • Report will be published within three months after workshop.
  • The format of the report should follow those of the hydrogen and solar workshop reports. A tentative outline is:

-- Executive Summary and Conclusions

-- Introduction

Overviews of Technology Challenges, Science Challenges and Knowledge Gaps, Panel Reports

-- Basic Research Grand Challenges

-- Report from Panel #1

-- Report from Panel #2…

-- Report from Cross-Cutting Panel

-- Appendix 1: Technology Perspective (Overview, Potential, Challenges)

-- Appendix 2: Workshop Agenda, Attendees, etc.

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