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MOTIVATION AND WORK. MOTIVATION. A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal. Nature (the physiological) Nurture (the cognitive and cultural) Example of Aron Ralston’s motivation to live. Hiking accident in 2003. FOUR PERSPECTIVES.

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motivation
MOTIVATION
  • A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal.
  • Nature (the physiological)
  • Nurture (the cognitive and cultural)
  • Example of Aron Ralston’s motivation

to live. Hiking accident in 2003

four perspectives
FOUR PERSPECTIVES
  • Instinct theory (replaced by evolutionary perspective)
  • Drive-reduction theory-interaction between inner pushes and external pulls. Drives usually distinguished from motives. Drive-strong biological

component-hunger, thirst in contrast

to motives that are urges which are

mainly learned.

slide4
Physiological aim of drive-reduction is homeostasis.
  • Arousal theory-urge for optimum level of stimulation. Both high and low levels of arousal tend to lower

performance. Moderate arousal usually results in best performance.

Inverted U function.

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs- ranking of needs- if lower need is unsatisfied,

there is motivation to first satisfy that

need first before seeking to satisfy other needs.

physiology of hunger
Physiology of Hunger

Lateral hypothalmus

hunger triggering hormone orexin

Ventromedial hypo-

thalamus depresses

hunger

When blood glucose

levels drop-hunger

increases

GHRELIN –hormone

arousing hunger

secreted by empty

stomach

Leptin –hunger

suppressing protein

secreted by fat cells

PYY-digestive

hormone all suppresses

hunger.

Insulin secreted

by pancreas

controls

blood glucose

psychology of hunger
Psychology of Hunger
  • Taste preferences-
slide9
Hot cultures like hot spices

India –averages 10 spices/meal

Finland-2 spices/meal

Food aversions during pregnancy

peak about 10 week when embryo

most vulnerable to toxins.

social influences on motivation
Social influences on motivation
  • NEED TO BELONG

Boosted ancestors’ survival rate.

Influences our thoughts and emotions.

“What makes your life meaningful?”

May conform to avoid rejection

May remain in abusive relationship

Motivated to avoid ostracism

motivation at work
Motivation at Work
  • Industrial/organization (I/O) psychology

Human factors (engineering) psychology

Personnel psychology

Organizational psychology

personnel psychology
Personnel psychology
  • Interview illusion
  • Structured interviews
  • Unstructured interviews
  • Performance appraisal vulnerable to bias:

Halo errors

Leniency and severity errors

Recency errors

organizational psychology
Organizational psychology
  • How to maximize achievement

motivation

Self-discipline appears to be a more accurate predictor of school performance, attendance, and graduation honors than intelligence.

Example: B.F. Skinner

slide14
Satisfaction and engagement

Positive moods contribute to creativity, persistence, and helpfulness.

  • Engaged employees(working with passion and feeling a connection to company) result in less turnover, higher productivity, greater profits.
  • Larry Brown (Detroit Pistons) 4-5 positive comments to every 1 negative comment
leadership
Leadership
  • Task leadership-setting standards,
  • organizing work
  • Social leadership-mediating conflicts and building high achieving teams
  • Harley-Davidson CEO changed leadership from command and control to joint-vision process
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