Topographical maps
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Topographical maps. http:// reynolds.asu.edu/topo_gallery/topo_gallery.htm. cliff. Mountain. Complex valley. Contour maps how to read. http://www.compassdude.com/topographic-maps.shtml http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/hiking/how-to-read-a-topographic-map2.htm.

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Topographical maps

Topographical maps


Http reynolds asu edu topo gallery topo gallery htm

http://reynolds.asu.edu/topo_gallery/topo_gallery.htm


Cliff

cliff


Mountain

Mountain


Complex valley

Complex valley


Contour maps how to read

Contour maps how to read

  • http://www.compassdude.com/topographic-maps.shtml

  • http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/outdoor-activities/hiking/how-to-read-a-topographic-map2.htm


Earth quakes

Earth Quakes


Topographical maps

  • Video 3 national geographic earthquake 101

  • Video of earth quake you tube

  • Video 2Japan photos and video


What do you know about earth quakes

What do you know about earth quakes?


Your assignment

Your Assignment:

  • Invent a specific quake and imagine yourself in it.

  • Open the template I have sent you on PhySci resources.

  • You are going to write about your earthquake from three view points; News reporter, scientists, and eyewitness.


Earth quake causes

Earth Quake Causes

  • They occur in Zones that coincide with the edges of the Lithospheric plates. (crust and upper section of the mantle)

  • Deformation of the earths crust:

    • Compression

    • Tension; stretched

    • Shear; move opposite directions

    • Torsion; twisted


Earthquake waves

Earthquake waves

  • Focus; the point of origin

  • Epicenter; on the surface directly above the focus.

http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/davis/inprogress/QuakesEng3.html


Earthquake waves1

Earthquake waves


Body waves

BODY WAVES

  • P waves

  • S waves


P waves

P waves

  • Primary waves.

  • The rock vibrates in the same direction the wave is moving.


S waves

S waves

  • Shear waves or Secondary waves

  • Particles move perpendicular to the direction of wave travel


Surface waves

Surface waves

  • Can be like S waves

  • Like Ocean waves with rolling motion

  • Cause the most Damage to structures


Types of faults

Types of Faults

  • Normal Fault: Tension forces

  • Reverse fault; Compression forces

  • Strike slip fault: Shearing forces

  • animations


Measuring earthquake strength

Measuring earthquake strength

  • Richter Scale and Modified Mercalli Scale

  • Measured by a seismograph


Richter scale

Richter Scale

  • Based on the measurements of amplitude of seismic waves


Modified mercalli scale

Modified Mercalli Scale

  • Measures the amount of structural and geological damage and earthquake causes or its intensity.


Richter scale1

Richter scale


What happens to buildings in an earth quake

What happens to buildings in an Earth quake?

  • They sway from the ground floor up.

  • Taller buildings are more flexible and sway more. Shorter buildings shake to pieces.


Seismic safe structures

Seismic Safe Structures

  • A structure that is resistant to the vibrations from earthquakes. It will still be standing!!!!!

  • The building and foundation need to be built to resist the sideways motion (load). Diagonal bracing.

  • Allow the structure to move as a unit and not shake.

  • Dampers that can absorb the motion so it is not transferred to the building.


Topographical maps

Building material that absorbs motion. Large bearings ( rubber or springs) in the foundation

Make structures that can bend.

Strengthening the foundation and securing the building to the foundation


Topographical maps

  • Diaphram

  • Diaphragms are horizontal resistance elements, generally floors and roofs, that transfer the lateral forces between the vertical resistance elements (shear walls or frames). Basically, a diaphragm acts as a horizontal I-beam. That is, the diaphragm itself acts as the web of the beam and its edges act as flanges. (See figure 1)

http://mceer.buffalo.edu/infoservice/reference_services/basicseqdesign.asp


Topographical maps

  • Shear wall

    Shear walls are vertical walls that are designed to receive lateral forces from diaphragms and transmit them to the ground. The forces in these walls are predominantly shear forces in which the fibers within the wall try to slide past one another.


Topographical maps

  • Braced Frame


Topographical maps

  • Moment Resistant Frame


Volcanoes and earth quakes

Volcanoes and Earth quakes


Volcanoes

Volcanoes

  • Molten rock beneath the surface called Magma rises through the crust.

  • This forms Lava on the surface.

  • Form at Subduction Zones both Continental and Oceanic


Ring of fire

Ring of Fire


Types of volcanoes

Types of Volcanoes

  • Cinder Cone: large fragments of solid materials


Shield volcanoes

Shield Volcanoes

  • Abundant lava flows; broad and flat made up of layers of lava flows.


Composite volcanoes

Composite Volcanoes

  • Include pyroclastic materials and lava flows. Usually along Convergent plate boundaries

  • Water and silica forced down to mix at the boundary produce an especially viscous magma.


Mount rainer in wa

Mount Rainer in WA


The end

The End


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