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Religion & Society 1630-1670 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Religion & Society 1630-1670. Puritans created representative political institutions that were locally based. Puritans eliminated bishops and devised a democratic church structure. This was influenced by John Calvin; they believed in predestination.

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Religion & Society 1630-1670

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Religion & Society 1630-1670


  • Puritans created representative political institutions that were locally based.

  • Puritans eliminated bishops and devised a democratic church structure. This was influenced by John Calvin; they believed in predestination.

  • Puritans also felt that they had to “purge” society of religious dissidents


Roger Williams

  • Williams and his followers founded settlements in Rhode Island, where there was no legally established church.

For more about Roger Williams, visit

http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch1_p7.htm


Anne Hutchinson

  • Considered a heretic because her beliefs diminished the role of Puritan ministers; Puritans believed that when it came to governance, women were inferior to men.

  • Hutchinson was exiled and followed Roger Williams to Rhode Island (see text pgs.58-59)


Thomas Hooker

  • Left Massachusetts and founded Hartford, Connecticut in 1639

  • Connecticut established a representative government including a representative assembly and governor; voting was not limited to church members.


In England

  • Religious civil war between royalists and Parliamentary forces.

  • After four years Parliamentary forces under Oliver Cromwell won a short lived victory over the monarchy

  • When the monarchy was restored, Puritans looked to create a permanent society in America.


  • Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector of England for much of the 1650s, ruling in place of the country's traditional monarchy. In the 1640s a civil war broke out between supporters of King Charles I (the Royalists) and of Parliament (the so-called Roundheads). Cromwell was a Roundhead military leader in a long series of civil war battles, which ended with Charles I imprisoned and finally beheaded in 1649. By 1653, Parliamentary squabbling led Cromwell to take control as head of state, in essence overseeing a military dictatorship. He eventually gained the king-like title of Lord Protector of the Realm, and presided over a troubled era of internal unrest and costly foreign wars.


Yeoman society

  • Puritans instituted a fee simple land distribution policy that encouraged self governance. All land owners had a voice in town meetings; They had more political power than Europeans or Chesapeake colonists.


  • Puritans believed in social and economic hierarchy

  • All male heads of families received some land and a society of yeomen farmers emerged.

Yeomen-

In medieval England, a farmer below the level

Of gentry, but above the peasantry. Owning

their own land released them from obligation

To a landlord


  • Town meetings chose selectmen, levied taxes and created ordinances, promoting local control.

  • As one generation gave away to the next, the communities of New England became more socially divided, yet nearly all new Englanders had an opportunity to own land.


Questions to Answer

  • 1) What factors account for the success of the Puritans in establishing an ordered society in New England?

  • 2) Given their distinct English subcultures, did Virginians and Puritans tend to treat Native Americans differently? If so, how?


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