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Jalgaon River Linking Project. Prepared by :. Vijay Singhal,. IAS. River Linking Project. Why ?. Inter linking of rivers. Inter linking of rivers as a solution for drought and flood. It was Sir Arthur Cotton who had originally

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Jalgaon River Linking Project

Prepared by :

Vijay Singhal,



Inter linking of rivers

  • Inter linking of rivers as a solution for drought

and flood.

  • It was Sir Arthur Cotton who had originally

proposed the networking of rivers more than a

century ago.

  • Channelling the surplus water to underfed areas

will solve the perennial problem of floods and

droughts and bring a boom in employment.

dr a p j abdul kalam ex president of india
Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam(ex- President of India)

“Instead of thinking of interlinking of rivers only at times of flood and drought, it’s time that we should implement this programme with a great sense of urgency.”

river linking project1
River Linking Project

“Of all the social and natural crisis we face, water crisis lie at the heart of our survival”

-Kochiro Matsuura, Director General of UNESCO

jalgaon district
Jalgaon District

Jalgaon District: Brief History

  • Jalgaon District is located in the north-west region of the state of Maharashtra
  • Bounded by Satpuda mountain ranges in the north and Ajanta mountain ranges in the south
  • Diverse climate
  • Exceptionally hot and dry in summer with temps up to 48° C
jalgaon district brief history
Jalgaon District: Brief History
  • Principle natural feature – Tapi River, which flows westward from headwaters in eastern Maharashtra and empties in the Arabian Sea
  • The Tapi receives 13 principal tributaries in its course through Khandesh
  • Most of Khandesh lies south of the Tapi
  • The Tapi is drained by its tributaries: the Girna, Bori and Anjani Rivers
  • The Tapi flows in a deep bed, historically making it difficult to use for irrigation

June and July 2005

Lots of clouds – but no rains!

water levels down
Water Levels Down

July 2005

Water level drastically reduced in wells!

land drought
Land Drought

June and July 2005

July 2005

Lots of clouds – but no rains!

This was the land situation !

stunted crop growth
Stunted Crop Growth

July 2005

Improper growth of crops due to insufficient rains

jalgaon river linking project
Jalgaon: “River Linking Project”

Idea Generation and Concept:

Necessity is the Mother of Inventions!

In the Monsoon of 2005, there were insufficient rains in the Jalgaon district – while the Girna Dam (a major project situated in south west, adjoining the Nashik district) was overflowing because of heavy rains in Nashik district. So this water, which was otherwise going waste in the Arabian Sea through Jalgaon district, was diverted – it was then the idea of river linking generated...

Average Rainfall of Jalgaon District: 700.28 MM

necessity mother of invention
Necessity: Mother of Invention!

Bhokar Bari Medium Project

We’re thinking about how to solve the problem of drinking water in Parola Tah, Jalgaon District during this time of insufficient stocks of water...

In the meantime, Girna Dam in the adjoining district of Nashik, is at the verge of reaching its maximum capacity !

(post 15th July 2005)

jalgaon river linking project1
Jalgaon: “River Linking Project”
  • How to bring the overflowing waters of Girna River using existing canals, channels, nalas and other links into the Bori, Anjani and Titur rivers?
  • Is it possible to refill Medium Projects, M.I. Projects, percolation tanks, village ponds, farm ponds, and mines on this route?

Planning after discussion with Irrigation Department Officials

  • Different solutions and ideas were discussed and compared
  • Proposal submitted to Government under scarcity fund
  • Government sanctioned Rs. 20 million
  • Implementation started immediately as per planning

Widening Nalla

strategies adopted

Girna Bori, Girna Titur, Girna Mhasva,Girna Anjani

Strategies Adopted
  • Diversion of surplus flood water into deficient basin:
  • 160 villages dependent for drinking water on reservoirs were covered under this, (Bori dam covers the highly drought-prone areas of Dhule and Jalgaon districts)
  • Existing canals and other systems were utilised to the maximum capacity with minimum possible modifications
  • Existing canal systems (Jamda canals, Titur canals, Lower Girna canals,) with increased capacity and maximum discharge kept on flowing and diverting water to deficient storages
  • Use of gravity rather than pumping for diversion of water.
strategies adopted1
Strategies Adopted...
  • Existing canal capacity was increased by raising canal banks with earth work; rugosity coefficient was improved by laying PVC paper of low cost at leaky portions
  • Aqueduct and syphons capacity increased by raising wall heights with B. B. masonry temporarily and PVC paper was laid in the channels to increase the rugosity coefficient
  • Low cost polyethene paper was used at canal apexes and in aqueduct beds, syphons to improve the rugosity coefficient (increase carrying capacity in turn with Jamda left Bank Canal, Panzan left Bank Canal, etc.)
  • Short Links – searched to divert the higher discharges, i.e., Panzan to Bori

Girna dam

strategies adopted2
Strategies Adopted...
  • New links wherever required were dug immediately – Jamda to Khadakesim, Jamda to Titur
  • Existing deficient storages got filled and canal water diverted to wells in command,
  • Reservoir capacity was increased to store maximum possible water by putting gunny bags on top of w. w. with calculated risk (i.e., no encroachment beyond high flood level and can be easily pulled down by simply wire rope in a flood situation)
jalgaon river linking project2
Jalgaon: “River Linking Project”

Project Objectives

1. Providing water for drinking as well as irrigation purposes in the drought hit areas of Jalgaon district by using diverted excess overflowing water

2. Increase the efficiency of different water storage structures

3. Conserve the water by taking it through canals ducts, drains, nallas, natural drains etc. in the drought-prone areas

4. Carry out qualitative and quantitative assessment of water resource

5. Suggest suitable sites and methods for artificial recharge to augment ground water recharge in the area.

river linking paths
River Linking Paths

Girna Dam-Panzan Left Canal – Water Passage (Nala) – Kanoli River – Bori River –Dhamangaon Bandhara – Budhgaon Bandhara- Bori River -Bori Dam. Distance: 68 km

Girna Dam – Girna River-Jamda Bandharas –J amda Left Canal – Parola Branch link cut Canal – Mhasva Minor irrigation pond – Link Cut – Bhokarbari Medium. Project Distance: 132 km

Girna Dam-Girna river-Jamda Bandhara-Jamda Right Canal-Parola Branch Canal –Water Passage (Nala) - Kala Bandhara – Anjani River. Distance: 127 km

Girna Dam-Girna River-Jamda Bandhara-Jamda Right Canal-Water Passage (Nala) – Titur River–Hol Bandhara–Balad Bandhara–Wadgaon Bandhara-Titur River. Distance: 84 km

Girna Dam- Girna River-Jamda Dam-Girna River-Dahigaon Bandhara-Lower Girna left Canal-Water Passage (Nala) -Anjani River-Pimri Bandhara. Distance: 186 km

jalgaon district river linking project
Jalgaon District “River Linking Project”

Work Done

To divert excessive overflowing water,

the work of stone breaking and digging was carried out on war footing to create additional channel


Work started on war footing

Resulted in diversion of higher discharge

jalgaon district river linking project1
Jalgaon District “River Linking Project”

Work Done

PVC lining increased rugosity coefficient

jalgaon district river linking project7
Jalgaon District “River Linking Project”

Work Done

Canal carrying capacity increased by raising its height

jalgaon district river linking project8
Jalgaon District “River Linking Project”

Work Done

Carrying capacity of existing canals increased by raising bank height – these canals were then used for linking various rivers

Use of Canals for River Linking

jalgaon district river linking project9
Jalgaon District “River Linking Project”

Work Done

Panzhan Left Canal was cut here to divert Girna’s water in the Kanholi and then Bori river through Big Nala (water passage)

jalgaon district river linking project10
Jalgaon District “River Linking Project”

Work Done

Panzhan Left Canal was cut here to divert Girna’s water in Kanholi and then Bori river through Big Nala (water passage)

jalgaon river linking project3
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Post Project Scenario

jalgaon river linking project5
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Water overflowing the Weir

jalgaon river linking project6
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Village pond filled up using Girna River water

(Rotwad Tal. Dharangaon)

jalgaon river linking project7
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Water overflowing through Weir (Anjani River)

jalgaon river linking project8
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Farm pond filled up using Girna Riverwater (Tahsil : Dharangaon)

jalgaon river linking project9
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Wichkhed Weir, Parola Municipal Council

Water Supply Source

jalgaon river linking project10
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Water overflowing through Weir, Dahiwad Tal. Amalner, Dist. Jalgaon

jalgaon river linking project11
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Benefits Received :

Helped solve the drinking water problem of 5 municipal councils and 128 villages

(dependent population = 8,23,500)

Increased water table in some Tahsils (even after less rainfall) –

over 16,000 wells recharged as endorsed by GSDA( Groundwater Survey Development Agency of Govt), in its report

jalgaon river linking project12
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Life saver for almost lost crops!

Thousands of hectors of additional land irrigated; highest irrigation in the history of Jalgaon (about 35% more irrigated area) – even though 30% less than average rain fall

Area under irrigation:

jalgaon river linking project13
Jalgaon River Linking Project


Total of 4,486 Mcft (127Mm3) excessive overflowing water of Girna dam brought to use

- Cost of this water : Rs. 112 millions

  • This water filled:
  • 2 medium projects,
  • 5 M.I. projects, and
  • 700 percolation tanks, K.T. weirs, farm ponds, and mines

Saved approximately Rs. 90 million of Water Scarcity Funds

jalgaon river linking project14
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Indirect Benefits

  • Improved economic condition of farmers
  • Prohibited migration of local & poor people in search of jobs
  • Saved huge expenditure which would have been incurred to provide employment under Employment Guarantee Scheme of Govt.
  • Repaired canals – which further reduced seepages and other losses
  • Total benefits: Rs. 250-300 million, as per rough estimates – in one year only and these benefits are recurring every year.
jalgaon river linking project15
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Benefits Received:


Recurring Benefits





in Rs crs






Project Cost

Savings in tanker costs

Additional Storage

Increased benefit to




jalgaon river linking project16
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Irrigation Deptt.: Funds for basic survey repair & maintenance

Jalgaon Collectorate: Scarcity funds (Head:2245)

Municipal Corporation/Councils : Internal resources for augmenting water availability for drinking

MP/MLA Local Area Development Scheme: For various developmental work

Land-owners, agricultural communities and citizen groups contribution

RESOURCE CONVERGENCE : technical and financial

Following sources of funding were tapped:

jalgaon river linking project17
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Project Presentation to the

H.E. Smt. Pratibhatai Patil (President of India) and

Honorable Sh. Sharad Pawar (Union Minister for Agriculture)

by Vijay Singhal, IAS , Collector Jalgaon


Jalgaon River Linking Project

Project Presentation to Hon. Chief Minister and Dy. Chief Minister

jalgaon river linking project18
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Watershed Development = Water Conservation + Diversion of Excess Water

Comments :

  • Unique innovative initiative at district level
  • Converging resources of different agencies towards the welfare of people of Jalgaon
  • Overwhelming response from the peoples’ representatives
  • Villagers contribution & participation in the process
  • No addition of water storage structures – only diversion by way of interlinking
  • Diligence in planning and focusing on sustainability
  • Permissible water used as per Inter-state agreement. So no chances of dispute
jalgaon river linking project19
Jalgaon River Linking Project


  • No deforestation.
  • No need for land acquisition – Zero land acquisition cost as land was donated by villagers on their own.
  • Use of local technical know-how and their expertise.
  • Circulation of water through canals provides additional benefits like conservation and percolation, which are highly beneficial to ecology w.r.t. temperature, additional greenery, etc.
  • Replicability : GoM issued order to implement it in all the districts and approved river linking as planned & regular scheme in DPC.
  • Govt of India approved it as MODEL PROJECT for replication in all the states of Country
  • Cost-effective, Citizen-friendly & Sustainable.
jalgaon river linking project20
Jalgaon River Linking Project

The project outcomes appreciated by President of India H.E. Smt Pratibhatai Patil.

Appreciation by Hon. Sharad Pawar & Hon. C.M.of Maharashtra.

Dept of Adm Reforms, GoI identifies it as MODEL PROJECT & directed me to send copies (350 in all) of this project to Chief Secretaries of all states, all Secretary (Admn reforms), Parliament Library & 28 ATI,s in the Country for dissemination and replication.

Govt. of Maharashtra issued order to implement it in all the districts of Maharashtra.

Attended International River Symposium 2006 at Brisbane, Australia & presented there “Jalgaon River Linking Project”.

Delivered a keynote lecture on this project at an International Conference in Macau, China in 2007.

Provided lead discussion and presented innovative & pioneer work on Jalgaon River Linking project at State University of New York, Albany, USA and Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA in October, 2009

Invited by the then Chief Minister of Rajasthan, Hon. Smt Vasundhara Raje to share the experience. She also appreciated the efforts taken. She also visited Jalgaon to see River Linking Project.

Received Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar National Fellowship Award given by National Bhartiya Sahitya Academy for river linking project.

Project Recognition :

jalgaon river linking project21
Jalgaon River Linking Project

Project is not only successful but also sustainable. Its benefits are still being enjoyed by the people.

This project is positively received by all sections of society

84.52% are in favour of river linking efforts.

53.92% farmers noticed considerable rise in water levels of their wells.

64.64% people have positive approach towards Govt. Agency

26.15% households actively participated in execution of the links contributing to 2142 man-days.

42.42% people reported increase in their employment opportunities

SOCIO-ECONOMIC SURVEY: by JalaSRI, a Watershed Surveillance and Research Institute (a third party agency)-

Conducted survey of 840 households in 42 villages in year 2007