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Chapter 23. Articulation and Body Movements. Functions of articulations. Articulations Where two bones interconnect To hold bones together To allow movements of the body. Functional classification. Immovable joints- Synarthroses More predominant in the axial skeleton

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chapter 23

Chapter 23

Articulation and Body Movements

functions of articulations
Functions of articulations
  • Articulations
    • Where two bones interconnect
  • To hold bones together
  • To allow movements of the body
functional classification
Functional classification
  • Immovable joints- Synarthroses
    • More predominant in the axial skeleton
  • Slightly moveable joints- Amphiarthroses
    • More predominant in the axial skeleton
  • Freely moveable joints- Diarthroses
    • More predominant in the appendicular skeleton
structural classification
Structural classification
  • Fibrous joints
  • No presence of joint cavity
  • They are synarthroses or amphiarthroses
  • Fibrous tissue present
    • Suture = skull bones bound together by dense connective tissue. It is a synarthrose. Bones interlock
    • Gomphosis= teeth bound to bony sockets by periodontal ligaments
structural classification1
Structural classification
  • Synostosis = two bones completely fused. Portions of the skull
  • Syndesmosis = bones connected by a ligament. Distal articulation between fibula and tibia. Movement varies from immovable to slightly variable.
cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous joints
  • Bones connected by a pad or plate of cartilage
    • Symphysis = bone separated by fibrocartilage. Pubic symphysis and intervertebral joints. It is amphiarthrotic
    • Syncondrosis= bones connected by hyaline cartilage. Epiphyseal plate and articulation of the first rib with the sternum. It is synarthrotic
synovial joints
Synovial joints
  • Bony surfaces enclosed within articularcapsule(dense connective tissue)
  • Synovial membrane-inside of the capsule
    • Secretes the synovial fluid
  • Synovial cavity
  • Articular cartilage
    • Resemble hyaline cartilage and covers the bone ends
synovial joints1
Synovial joints
  • Meniscior articular discs
    • Improves the fit of the joint
    • Minimizes the wear and tear of the joint
  • Fat pads
  • Bursae and tendon sheath
    • Synovial sacs between tendons
    • They reduce friction
    • May or may not be present in the joint
synovial joints2
Synovial joints
  • Reinforcing ligaments
    • Intrinsic or capsular- it is a thickening part of the caspsule
    • Extracapsular- outside of the capsule
    • Intracapsular- inside of the capsule
synovial joints stability
Synovial Joints: Stability
  • Stability is determined by:
    • Articular surfaces – shape determines what movements are possible
    • Ligaments – unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion
    • Muscle tone
structural classification of the synovial joints2
Structural Classification of the Synovial Joints
  • Plane - articular surface is flat or slightly curved
  • Hinge– round process of one bone fits into the concave surface of the other bone. Elbow
  • Pivot- allows rotational movement between two bones.
  • Condyloid – convex surface articulating with a concave one
structural classification of the synovial joints3
Structural Classification of the Synovial Joints
  • Saddle -one concave and one convex bone facing it other
  • Ball-and-socket - permit rotation and other movements
types of movements of synovial joints
Types of movements of synovial joints
  • Gliding
  • Flexion
  • Extension, hyperextension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Rotation
  • Circunduction
  • Elevation
  • Depression
types of movements of synovial joints1
Types of movements of synovial joints
  • Pronation
  • Supination
  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Plantar flexion
  • Protraction
  • Retraction
  • Opposition
selected synovial joints knee
Selected synovial joints- Knee
  • Menisci
    • Act as cushion
    • Provide lateral stability to the joint
    • Lateral and medial
  • Bursae
knee joint
Knee joint
  • Collateral ligaments
    • Prevent rotation during extension
    • Reinforce the sides of the knee
    • Medial or tibial
    • Lateral or fibular
knee joint1
Knee joint
  • Cruciate ligaments
    • Prevent anterior-posterior displacement of the joint, overflexion and hyperextension of the joint
    • Anterior
    • Posterior
knee joint2
Knee joint
  • Popliteal ligaments
    • Reinforce the posterior surface of the knee
  • Patellar ligament-from patella to the tibia
  • Patellar retinaculum
    • Lateral and medial
    • Merge with the capsule
  • Patellar and retinaculum ligaments support the anterior surface of the knee
the knee joint1
The Knee Joint

Figure 9.12c, d

hip joint
Hip joint
  • Ball and socket diarthroses
  • Acetabular labrum
    • Circular rim of fibrocartilage. Deepens the socket
hip joint1
Hip joint
  • Ligamentumteres or ligament of the head of the femur
    • From fovea capitis to the acetabulum.
    • Helps to secure the femur
  • Iliofemoral ligament
  • Pubofemoral ligament
  • Ischiofemoral ligament
temporomandibular joint tmj
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)
  • Between mandibular fossa and mandibular condyle
  • Articular disc
    • Divides the joint in superior and inferior compartment
  • Lateral ligament
joint disorders
Joint Disorders
  • Sprain
    • Damage of the ligament by excessive stretch or tear. Slow and painful healing
  • Dislocation
    • Bones are forced out of their normal position
    • Reduction
joint disorders1
Joint Disorders
  • Adhesion
    • Fibrous bands between the surfaces where the bones meet
  • Spurs
    • Extra bone growing along the joint
  • Bursites
    • Damage or inflamation of the bursa by blow or friction
osteoarthritis oa
Osteoarthritis (OA)
  • Most common chronic arthritis; often called “wear-and-tear” arthritis
  • Affects women more than men
  • More prevalent in the aged, and is probably related to the normal aging process
arthritis
Arthritis
  • Gouty Arthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
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