Proposition and necessity
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Proposition and Necessity. R. E. Jennings [email protected] Y. Chen [email protected] Laboratory for Logic and Experimental Philosophy Simon Fraser University. What is a proposition? The set of necessities at a point ⧠ (x ). Primordial necessity.

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Proposition and necessity

Propositionand Necessity

R. E. Jennings

[email protected]

Y. Chen

[email protected]

Laboratory for Logic and Experimental Philosophy

Simon Fraser University


Proposition and necessity

What is a proposition?

The set of necessities at a point ⧠(x).


Primordial necessity

Primordial necessity

Every point x in U is assigned a primordial necessity R(x) = { y | Rxy } .

The set of necessities at a point ⧠(x)in a model of a binary relational frame F = <U, R> is a filter.


The leibnizian account

The `leibnizian’ account

R is universal;

The primordial necessity for every point is identical, which is U.

Only the universally true is necessary (and what is necessary is universally true, and in fact, universally necessary).


Cpn frame

CPN frame

  • A common primordial necessity

  • (x)(y)(z)(Rxz→Ryz) (CPN)

  • [K], [RM], [RN], [5], ⧠(⧠p→p), ⧠(p→ ⧠ ◊p).

    • R is serial and symmetric.

    • R satisfies CPN.

  • R is universal.


  • Necessities in cpn frame

    Necessities in CPN frame

    M = <F, V>

    M ⊨ ⧠A iff ℙ ⊆ ∥A∥M

    The set of necessities in a model, ⧠(M) is a filter on P (U), i.e. a hypergraph on U.


    Entering hypergraph

    Entering hypergraph

    A hypergraph H is a pair H = (X, E) where X is a set of elements, called vertices, and E is a non-empty set of subsets of X called (hyper)edges. Therefore, E ⊆ P (X).

    H is a simple hypergraphiff∀E, E’∈ H, E⊄E’.


    Locale frame

    Locale frame

    • Weakening neighbourhood truth condition

    • F = <U, N >

      • N(x) is a set of propositions.

      • ∀ A∈Φ, F ⊨ ⧠A iff∃a∈ N(x): a⊆ ∥A∥F

    • L = <U, N’ > if N’ (x) is a simple hypergraph.

    • PL closed under [RM].

      • N’ (x)≠∅ [RN]

      • N’ (x) is a singleton [K]


    Hypergraph semantics

    Hypergraph semantics

    • We use hypergraphs instead of sets to represent wffs.

    • Classically, inference relations are represented by subset relations between sets.

      • α entails βiff the α-hypergraph, Hα is in the relation R to the β-hypergraph, Hβ .

      • HαRHβ . : ∀ E ∈ Hβ , ∃ E’∈ Hα : E’ ⊆ E.


    Proposition and necessity

    ⧠(F)

    • F = <U, N >

      • N(x) is a simple hypergraph.

      • ∀ A∈Φ, F ⊨ ⧠A iffN(x)R HA

    • [K], [RN], [RM(⊦)]

    • →?


    Necessarily a is true

    Necessarily (A is true)

    A is necessarily true;

    (Necessarily A) is true. ⊨⧠A

    HA→B is interpreted as H¬A˅B.


    Articular models a models

    Articular Models (a-models)

    Each atom is assigned a hypergraph on the power set of the universe .


    Preliminary definitions

    Preliminary definitions


    Hypergraph operations

    Hypergraph operations


    Proposition and necessity

    FDE

    • First degree fragment of E

      • A ∧ B ├ A

      • A ├ A V B

      • A ┤├~~A

      • ~(A ∧ B) ┤├ ~A V ~B

      • ~(A V B) ┤├ ~A ∧ ~B

      • A V (B ∧ C)├ (A V C) ∧ (B V C)

      • A ∧(B V C)├ (A ∧ C) V(B ∧ C).


    Fde with necessity

    FDE with necessity

    Necessarily (A is true) iff∀ E ∈ HA, ∃ v∈ E such that ∃ v’∈ E: v’ = U – v. (N)

    (N) is closed under ⊦ and ˄.

    A⊦B / necessarily A→B is true.


    Problem of entailment

    Problem of entailment

    Anderson & Belnap

    • D1 D2 … Dn

    • C1 C2 … Cm

    • ∀1≤ i ≤ n, ∀1≤ j ≤ m, di∩ cj≠ Ø


    A b con d

    A & B Con’d

    C1 C2 … Cn

    C1 C2 … Cm

    ∀1≤ i ≤ n, ∃1≤ j ≤ m, cj⊆ di

    ∀1≤ i ≤ n, ∃1≤ j ≤ m, cj⊢ di


    Higher degree entailment

    Higher degree entailment

    ((A → A) → B)├B

    (A → B)├((B → C) →(A → C))

    (A → (A → B))├ (A → B)

    (A → B) ∧ (A → C) ├ (A → B ∧ C)

    (A → C) ∧ (B → C) ├ (A V B → C)

    (A → ~ A)├ ~ A

    (A → B)├(~ B → ~ A)


    Proposition and necessity

    • Higher degree E

      • ((A → A) → B) → B

      • (A → B) →((B → C) →(A → C))

      • (A →(A → B)) → (A → B)

      • (A → B) ∧ (A → C) → (A → B ∧ C)

      • (A → C) ∧ (B → C) → (A V B → C)

      • (A → ~ A) → ~ A

      • (A → B) → (~ B → ~ A)


    Problem of degree

    Problem of degree

    Mixed degree

    Uniform substitution


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