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Appendix: Application Living Together or Going it alone ？ He Shuxun. Comments from the previous week.
Living Together or Going it alone？
against individuality: “The peg that stands out is pounded down.”
c.f. The squeaky wheel gets the grease.
2. Individuals feel detached from their in-groups and tend not to make much difference between in-group and out-group.
2. Individuals feel placed in their in-groups, and distant from out-group.
3. The person can move from one group to another without significant change.
3. The person is connected, fluid and conditional, and he/she understands him/her in relation to the whole (family, organization, society).
4. Find it difficult to describe themselves in a particular context.
e.g. -I am what I am.
4. Description depends on context.
e.g., -I am hard-working at work.
-I am fun-loving with friends.
5. They are likely to report to be more unique than they really are.
6. Children are encouraged to establish superiority and uniqueness.
5. They are less likely to report to be as unique as they really are.
6. Children are taught to be harmoniously with others and encouraged to be modest.
Babies sleep in a separate bedroom.
Encouraged to voice choice.
e.g.," Give me some milk, please.”
Concentrating attention on objects.
Babies sleep in the same bed as parents.
Parents make a decision for children.
Focusing on feelings and social relations.
e.g., “The toy is crying as you threw it.”2. Independence vs. Interdependenceby Markus & Kitayama2.1 Child rearing
Encourage their children to communicate ideas clearly.
Responsibility of communication-Sender
Encourage their children to be sensitive about others’ feeling.
Responsibility of communication-Receiver
1. Insist on freedom of individual action
2. Desire for individual distinctiveness
3. Preference for egalitalianism and achieved status
4. Universal rules
5. The self is a unitary free agent.
1. Preference for collective action
2. Preference for making a harmony with the group
3. Acceptance of hierarchy and ascribed status
4. Particularistic approaches depending on contexts
5. The self is part of a larger whole.2.2 Characteristics
Funatsu, M. (1983). <Book Review> Eshun Hamaguchi, Japan as a Society of "Contextualism" Japanese sociological review
Vol.34, No.2(19830930) pp. 61-64
Nisbet, R. E. (2006). “Living together vs. going it alone.” L. A. Samovar, R. E. Porter & E. R. McDaniel (Eds.,) Intercultural communication: A reader, (pp. 103-113). Belmont, CA: Thomson.