Growth of royal power in england france
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GROWTH OF ROYAL POWER IN ENGLAND & FRANCE. BY: TA’VIA CREWS. Monarchs, Nobles and the Church. Feudal monarchs in Europe stood at the head of society, but had limited power.

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GROWTH OF ROYAL POWER IN ENGLAND & FRANCE

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Growth of royal power in england france

GROWTH OF ROYAL POWER IN ENGLAND & FRANCE

BY: TA’VIA CREWS


Monarchs nobles and the church

Monarchs, Nobles and the Church

  • Feudal monarchs in Europe stood at the head of society, but had limited power.

  • Monarch used various means to centralize power. They expanded royal domain and set up system of royal justice that undermined feudal or church courts.

  • They organized a government bureaucracy, developed a system of taxes, and built a standing army.


Strong monarchs in england

Strong Monarchs in England

  • During the early Middle Ages, Angles, Saxon , and Vikings invaded and settle in England.

  • In the 1066, the Anglo-Saxon king Edward died without an heir. A council of nobles close Edward’s brother-in-law Harold to rule

  • There were a lot of stuff he had to do like a Norman request, Growth of royal power, A Unified Legal Systems, and Conflict with the church.


Evolving tradition of english government

Evolving Tradition of English Government

  • Henry’s son John was a clever, greedy, cruel, and untrustworthy ruler. During his reign, he faced three powerful enemies: King Phillip the second, Pope Innocent the three, and his English nobles.

  • Ever since Williams the Conqueror, Norman rulers of England had held vast lands in France.In 1205, John suffered a amjor setback when he lost awar with Phillip the second.


Successful monarchs in france

Successful Monarchs in France

In 987, these feudal nobles elected Hugh Capet,, the court of Paris, to fill the vacant throne.

Hugh and his heirs slowly increased royal power.

During the struggle with the pope, Phillip rallied French support by settling up the Estates General in 1302.


The high middle ages

The High Middle Ages

Group 6

Chapter 9

Ta'via, Brandi, Alaina, Erin & Gianna


The holy roman empire and the church

The Holy Roman Empire and the Church.

  • Like Charlemagne Otto worked closely with the church.

  • He Took His army into Italy to help the Pope defeat rebellious Roman nobles.

  • In 962, a grateful pope crowned Otto emperor.

  • Later his successors took the title “Holy Roman Emperor”.


Conflict between popes emperors

Conflict Between Popes Emperors

  • Many admired Pope Gregory VII, but he aroused more hatred of any other pope of his time.

  • Gregory wanted to make the church independent of secular rulers.

  • He banned the practice of lay investiture-(creation of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy)

  • Henry IV was outraged by the Popes new rules.

  • The two men continued to exchange insulting notes.

  • Henry was excommunicated by Gregory in 1076.

  • In 1076 Henry confessed his sins and Gregory was forced to lift the order of excommunication

  • In 1133 both sides accepted a treaty known as Concordat of Worms.


The struggle for italy

Fredrick Barbossa also called “Red Beard”.

Barbossa fought for years to build the empire of Baltic to Adriatic.

But was defeated by the pope in Lombard League.

He did succeed in marring his son Henry to Constance, heiress to Sicily and Southern Italy.

Frederick II child of Henry and Constance.

Was an arrogant leader willing to use any means to achieve his ends.

The Struggle for Italy


The struggle for italy cont

The Struggle for Italy (cont.)

  • While Frederick was in Italy German nobles grew more independent.

  • The Holy Roman empire remained fragmented into many feudal states.

  • German people had to pay high taxes.

  • The popes over thrown Fredrick’s heirs.

  • This uprising led to chaos in in Sicily for 200 years.


The height of church power

Pope innocent III took office in 1198.

Innocent clashed with all of the other powerful rulers.

He excommunicated France when Phillip II tried to unlawfully annul his marriage.

In 1209 Innocent and Phillip II launched a brutal crusade against the Albigensians.

The Height of Church Power


Growth of royal power in england france

The World in 1050

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During Europe’s Middle Ages, Islam had given rise to a brilliant new civilization that stretched from Spain to India. Although India was politically divided, it was a land of thriving cities. Hindu and Buddhist traditions flourished, and wealthy prices built stunning temples and palaces. Indian mathematicians invented a number system, which Arabs adapted and eventually passed to Europeans. China had a strong central government. Under the Tang and Song dynasties, Chinas culture flourished and influenced neighboring peoples. The Chinese made amazing advances in technology, inventing paper, printing, and gun powder. Merchants traded goods, especially gold, across the Sahara to North America and Middle East. Across the Atlantic, in the Americas the Mayas had cleared rain forests and built cities. In Peru, Native Americans were building empires and creating great works of art, like pottery, textiles and jewelry. Closer to Western Europe, the Byzantine Empire was generally prosperous and united.


Growth of royal power in england france

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The Crusades

  • By 1096, thousands of knights were on their way to the Holy Land. Many knights hoped to win wealth and land.

  • After a long, bloody campaign, Christian knights captured Jerusalem in 1099.

  • The Crusades continued, off and on, for over 200 years.

  • By 1187, Jerusalem had fallen to the able Muslim leader Salah al-Din, known to Europeans as Saladin.

  • On the Third Crusade, Europeans tried but failed to retake Jerusalem. After negotiations, Saladin did reopen the holy city to Christian pilgrims.

  • During the Fourth Crusade, the crusaders were diverted from fighting Muslims to fighting Christians.

  • After helping Venetian merchants defeat their Byzantine trade rivals in 1204, crusaders captured and looted Constantinople.

  • By 1291, they captured the last Christian outpost, the port city of Acre.


Growth of royal power in england france

Effects of the Crusades on Europe

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  • The Crusades left a bitter legacy of religious hatred behind them.

  • In Europe, crusaders sometimes turned their religious fury against Jews, massacring entire communities.

  • The Crusades had a big effect on Europe, the wars helped to quicken the pace of changes already underway.

    Economic Expansion

  • The Crusades increased trade

  • Crusades introduced fabrics, spices, and perfumes from the Middle East to Europe.

  • To finance a journey to the Holy Land, nobles needed money. They allowed peasants to pay rents in money than in grain or labor, which helped undermine serfdom.

    Increased Power for Monarchs

  • The Crusades helped to increase the power of feudal monarchs.

  • Rulers won new rights to levy, or collect, taxes in order to support the Crusades.

    The Church

  • Popes were soon involved in bitter clashes with feudal monarchs.

  • A Wider Worldview

  • - Contacts with the Muslim world led Christians to realize that millions of people lived in regions they have never known existed.


Growth of royal power in england france

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The Reconquista in Spain

Christian Advances

  • Efforts by Christian warriors to expel the Muslims began in 700s.

  • Their first success did not come until 1085, when they recaptured the city of Toledo.

  • During the next 200 years, Christian forces pushed slowly and steadily southward.

    Ferdinand and Isabella

  • The two monarchs made a final push against the Muslim stronghold of Granada.

  • In 1492, Granada fell. The Reconquista was complete.

  • They tried to impose unity on their diverse peoples.

  • Isabella was determined to bring religious as well as political unity to Spain.

  • Christians, Jews, and Muslims lived there in relative peace.

  • Isabella launched a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims.

  • The queen achieved religious unity but at a high price, more than 150,000 people fled Spain.


Alaina stewart

Alaina Stewart

Chapter 9, Section. 4

Learning, Literature, and Arts Expert


Introducing the chapter

Introducing the chapter

  • By the 100s, Europe started to experience dynamic changes.

  • People weren’t any longer distracted with daily struggles to survive.

  • Agricultural improvements created a steadier food supply.

  • From trade and the growth of towns restored were signs of increased prosperity.

  • Few people gained wealth in medieval Europe.

  • Towns contributed an important spark that ignited the cultural flowering of the High Middle Ages.


Medieval universities

Medieval Universities

  • The church wanted better-educated clergy.

  • Royal rulers needed literate men.

  • ACADEMIC GUILDS:

  • By the 11oos, schools had sprung up around the great cathedral schools to train the clergy.

  • Cathedral schools were organized like guilds with charters to protect the rights of members and set standards for training.

  • Salerno and Bologna in Italy boasted the first universities.

  • Soon Paris and Oxford had theirs.

  • STUDENT LIFE:

  • A bell woke students up at 5:00am for prayers, the students attended classes until 10:00am when they had their first meal of the day, Afternoon classes lasted until 5:00pm then the students usually ate a light supper and then studied up until bedtime.

  • Medieval Universities didn’t have permanent buildings.

  • So classes were held in rented rooms or in the choir loft of a church.

  • Students had to also memorize what they heard.

  • A student program covered the seven liberal arts: Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, Music, Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic.

  • WOMEN and EDUCATION:

  • Women were not allowed to attend the universities.

  • Without a university education, they couldn’t become Doctors, Lawyers, Administrators, Church Officials, or Professors.

  • This seriously affected their lives. They were also taken away from Mental Stimulation, that was an important part of university life.

  • Christine de Pizan was an exception. She was an Italian-born woman who came to live in the French Court.


New learning

“New” Learning

  • HOW LEARNING SPREAD:

  • Learning stared to spread when Muslim scholars translated the works of Aristotle and other Greek thinkers.

  • Jewish scholars translated these works into Latin, language of Christian European scholars.

  • By the 1100s, these translations swept into Western Europe which set off the revolution in the world of learning.

  • HOW CHRISTIANS INTERPRET ARISTOTLE’S PHILOSOPHICAL IDEAS:(scholasticism)

  • Christians interpreted Aristotle’s philosophical ideas(scholasticism) as he taught that people should use reason to discover basic truths.

  • Christians had accepted many ideas on faith. They believed that the church was the final authority on all questions.

  • So they thought of how they could use the logic of Aristotle without destroying their Christian faith.

  • Christian scholars known as scholastics, tried to resolve the conflict between faith and reason, their plan was known as scholasticism. This was to use reason to support Christian beliefs.


Science and math

Science and Math

  • HOW CHRISTIANS VIEWED SCIENCE:

  • Christians viewed science by studying Hippo crates on medicine and Euclid on geometry, along with works by Arab scientist.

  • They saw how Aristotle had used observation and experimentation to study the physical world.

  • Scientist made little progress in Middle Ages because most scholars still believed that all true knowledge must fit with church teachings.

  • Europeans adopted Hindu- Arabic numerals, this system was much easier to use than the cumbersome system of Roman numeral’s that had been traditional throughout Europe for centuries.


Medieval literature

Medieval Literature

  • VERNACULAR:

  • Latin was the language of scholars and churchmen but their new writings began to appear in the vernacular, or the everyday languages of ordinary people, such as French, German, and Italian.

  • HEROIC EPICS:(famous works)

  • Heroic epics(famous works) were started when people began writing down oral traditions in the vernacular.

  • Chansons de geste, “ a song of heroic deed. The most popular was the song of Rowland, which praises the courage of one of Charlemagne’s knights who died while on a military campaign in Muslim Spain, Spain’s great epic, Poem of the cid, the battle against Muslim forces. The Cid was Rodrigo Diaz, a bold and fiery Christian lord who battled Muslims in Spain.


Architecture and art

Architecture and Art

  • THE FLYING BUTTRESSES:

  • The flying buttresses was a stone support on the outside of a building that allowed builders to construct higher walls and leave space for large stained- glass windows.

  • ILLUMINATION:

  • Illumination was an artistic decoration in books.


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