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ORGANIZING AND PAYING FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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ORGANIZING AND PAYING FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION. ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS. Principal In charge of school Meets with superintendent & district supervisors Site-based management Tenn. – Administrative endorsement Performance contract but no tenure Contract lasts as long as superintendent

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ORGANIZING AND PAYING FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION

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Organizing and paying for american education l.jpg

ORGANIZING AND PAYING FOR AMERICAN EDUCATION


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ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS

  • Principal

    • In charge of school

    • Meets with superintendent & district supervisors

    • Site-based management

    • Tenn. –

      • Administrative endorsement

      • Performance contract but no tenure

      • Contract lasts as long as superintendent

  • Assistant Principal

    • Shares duties of principal – may be responsible for a specific area (discipline, athletics, etc.)

    • Not required to have administrative endorsement

    • Some schools have curriculum coordinators


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ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS

  • Department heads and team leaders – teachers serving as leaders

  • Teachers (largest group of adults in schools)

    • Principal & teachers must work to maintain communication

    • Tenn.

      • Student teachers

      • Probationary teachers

      • Tenured teachers

        • Superintendent can recommend to board & when the board approves contract is offered – when teacher accepts they are tenured

        • Teacher can keep job in 4th & 5th year without tenure with superintendent approval

      • Tenn. Code – teacher means all licensed personnel

      • Teacher contract length can vary – usually 200 days


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ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS

  • Support staff

    • Classified employees

    • Examples – secretary, library media specialist, custodian

  • Students

    • Compulsory Education Law – nonspecial ed. students required to attend from age 6 until 18

    • Every school district required to provide kindergarten

    • Attendance for 180 days / at least 6.5 hours per day

  • See p. 147 for organizational chart

  • Teachers who need help or want to try something new should work up the chain of command beginning with team leaders or department heads


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ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS

  • Local Board of Education

    • legal authority for operating school systems

    • 92% in US are elected

    • Tenn. – elected for 4 year terms

    • Powers & duties

      • Only have powers granted by statute

      • Some duties cannot be delegated (awarding tenure, providing money, etc.)

      • Other duties are discretionary & can be delegated to the superintendent

      • Business must be conducted in public meetings

      • Examples of powers – obtain revenue, maintain schools, purchase land, purchase materials & supplies, organize & provide curriculum, control conduct of students, select and support the superintendent


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ORGANIZATION OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS

  • Superintendent (Director) of Schools

    • Serves as the local “expert” on education

    • Some superintendents are elected & some are appointed

    • Tenn.

      • Appointed by local board for maximum contract of four years

      • Contract is renewable

      • Must have a bachelor’s degree

  • Central office staff

    • includes clerical staff but also assistants to the superintendent and curriculum specialists

    • Work to help superintendent carry out the program of education


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ORGANIZATION AT STATE LEVEL

  • US Constitution does not mention education – states are charged with that responsibility

  • State legislatures grant powers to state boards of educ., departments of educ., chief state school officers, & local boards

  • Tennessee

    • Board of Education

      • 9 members appointed by governor

      • Memphis – Avron Fogleman (9th district)

      • Shelby County – Cherrie Holden (7th district)

      • has a substantial staff

      • Master Plan for Tennessee Schools

    • Commissioner of Education – Lana Seivers (appointed 2003)

    • State Legislature

      • Meets annually for about 90 days

      • State can take over low performing schools


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FEDERAL GOVERNMENT’S ROLE IN EDUCATION

  • Leadership – especially in times of trouble

  • US Department of Education

    • Established in 1867 as Office of Education directed by Henry Barnard

    • 1979 – cabinet status

    • Margaret Spellings appointed in Jan. 2005

  • Federal educational aid can be categorical or a block grant


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ALTERNATIVES TO REGULAR PUBLIC SCHOOLS

  • Publicly funded schools

    • Magnet schools – focus on a subject area

    • Charter schools – 1st were in CA in 1992

    • Year-round schools – reg. no. of days spread out across the whole year

  • Privately funded schools

    • Independent – funded by tuition & gifts – non-profit – board of trustees

    • Parochial – funded and governed by a religious body

    • Vouchers – public money that can be used by student to go to a private school

  • “For-profit” K-12 schools – such as Edison Project that has taken over failing public schools

  • Home schooling – growing in no. (1999=4% of all students)


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FINANCING EDUCATION

  • TAXATION

    • Property taxes are source of local revenue

      • Advantage – stable income

      • Disadvantage – accurate assessment difficult

      • Assessment – determines value of property – done every 5 years

      • Progressive or Regressive?

        • Progressive – based on ability to pay

        • Regressive – lower income affected disproportionately

    • State revenue sources

      • Sales tax (7% in TN with local option of 2.75%

      • Income taxes (not in TN)

      • Gaming (casinos – not in TN)

      • Lottery – used for scholarships and some states give $ to schools


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FINANCING EDUCATION

  • Education spending

    • Expenditure per pupil varies widely

      • 2001-2 Memphis = $7368 per pupil

      • 2001-2 Shelby Co. = $6024 per pupil

    • State $ required for 3 reasons

      • State has primary responsibility for education

      • Wide variation in school districts’ ability to pay

      • Personal wealth in real estate is lower

    • 2 types of state funding

      • Categorical - $ targeted by provider for specific purpose

      • General – $ provided centrally but budgeted locally

        • Provides equality of opportunity

        • Basic Education Program - $ for the basics

        • Extras are a local expense

        • TN BEP budgeted annually but funding is lower than actual costs


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FINANCING EDUCATION

  • Challenges to school finance

    • Serrano v. Priest (1971) CA use of property tax to finance education unconstitutional because wealthier areas got more $

    • San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez (1973) said educ. was not a fundamental right under the fed. const.

    • Serrano v. Priest (1976) started 2nd wave of school finance reform based on idea that education was a fundamental right based on the equal protection clause of the constitution

  • Other cases were based on language in state constitutions

    • Rose v. Council for Better Education, Inc. – resulted in Kentucky Educational Reform Act in 1990

    • Tennessee Small School Systems v. McWherther – resulted in the Educational Improvement Act in 1992

    • Michigan changed from property tax to sales tax to fund schools

    • New Hampshire considered using a state property tax to fund schools.


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FINANCING EDUCATION

  • School finance issues of the future

    • Taxpayer revolt – questioning funding of educational reform

    • Accountability

      • Schools must devise a way of relating educational spending with results

      • Becoming accountable – NCLB and school report cards

    • Condition of Schools – states are paying less for construction and districts have to pay more for maintenance

  • Entrepreneurial Efforts to fund education

    • Advertising on buses and score boards

    • Student fees for activities and extracurriculars

    • Fund raising – selling stuff, school functions for a price, etc.

    • Solicitation of donations & sponsorships from businesses


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