long distance dependencies filler gap constructions and relative clauses
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Long Distance Dependencies (Filler-Gap Constructions) and Relative Clauses

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 38

Long Distance Dependencies Filler-Gap Constructions and Relative Clauses - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 143 Views
  • Uploaded on

Long Distance Dependencies (Filler-Gap Constructions) and Relative Clauses. October 10, 2007 11-721: Grammars and Lexicons Lori Levin (Examples from Kroeger and Van Valin). Outline. What is a filler-gap construction? What is a long-distance dependency? What is a relative clause?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Long Distance Dependencies Filler-Gap Constructions and Relative Clauses' - lindley


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
long distance dependencies filler gap constructions and relative clauses

Long Distance Dependencies(Filler-Gap Constructions)and Relative Clauses

October 10, 2007

11-721: Grammars and Lexicons

Lori Levin

(Examples from Kroeger and Van Valin)

outline
Outline
  • What is a filler-gap construction?
  • What is a long-distance dependency?
  • What is a relative clause?
  • Relative clauses in various languages
  • Long distance dependencies in Malagasy
    • Where can the gap be?
    • What do you do if you need to put a gap where it is not allowed?
  • Where can’t the gap be in English
filler gap constructions
Filler-Gap Constructions
  • Ann, I think he likes ___.
  • Gap is ungrammatical without filler:
    • *I think he likes___.
  • Filler without gap:
    • Ann, I think he likes the girl in my class.
    • Ann, I think he likes her.
  • If you write a grammar for a filler-gap dependency, an interesting exercise is to make the parse fail when there is a gap without a filler or a filler without a gap.
long distance dependencies

S

NP

VP

V

S

NP

VP

NP

S

V

NP

VP

V

IP

I

VP

NP

V

Long Distance Dependencies

S-bar

Distance is measured by the number of nodes – the number of S, NP, CP, and IP nodes in particular – on the path from the parent of the filler, down the tree to the gap.

NP

Ann, I think he told me he tried to like ___

long distance dependencies1
Long Distance Dependencies

S-bar

Distance is not measured by the number of words between the filler and the gap.

S

NP

VP

NP

the guy I met on the bus yesterday in Oakland

Ann

NP

V

likes

filler gap constructions english
Filler Gap Constructions: English
  • Topicalization
    • Ann, I think he likes.
  • It-Cleft
    • It’s Ann that I think he likes.
  • Wh-question
    • Who do you think he likes?
  • Embedded Wh-question
    • I wonder who you think he likes?
  • Relative Clause
    • I saw the woman who I think he likes.
filler gap constructions english1
Filler Gap Constructions: English
  • Tough-movement
    • Ann is easy to talk to __ .
  • Correlative construction
    • The more I think I like Ann ___ the more she ignores me.
    • The more people I talk to ___ the more I learn.
  • Comparative clauses
    • Ann has seen more movies than I think I have seen ___.
historical note
Historical Note
  • Chomsky (1977) On Wh Movement
    • Proposed a single rule, Move-wh, to account for all long-distance dependencies.
    • Old approach:
      • Write rules for each construction.
    • New approach:
      • Look for what the rules have in common.
what are relative clauses
What are relative clauses?

Sometimes people use the term “relative clause” to refer to the S-bar. Sometimes they use it (sloppily) to refer to the whole NP.

NP

Det N-bar

The N-bar S-bar

student RP S

Head noun

that/who/which/Ø I saw ___

Let’s say that the filler is the relative pronoun, not the head noun.

S containing a gap

Relative pronoun, etc.

but there are relative clauses
But there are relative clauses
  • Without head nouns
  • Without relative pronouns
  • Without gaps
what makes it a relative clause
What makes it a relative clause?
  • A noun that plays a role in two clauses
    • I like the student who won the contest.
      • I like the student.
      • The student won the contest.
  • One clause is part of a noun phrase in the other clause.
which sentences contain relative clauses
Which sentences contain relative clauses?
  • I am annoyed by the fact that linguistics is fun.
  • You met the the man who I saw.
  • I wonder who you saw.
  • The book that bothered me is on the shelf.
  • I think that linguistics is fun.
  • That linguistics is fun bothers me.
  • I like [who you like].
    • Headless relative clause
relativized
“Relativized”
  • The child who __ saw me smiled.
    • Subject of “see” is relativized.
  • The child who I saw __ smiled.
    • Object of “saw” is relativized.
  • The child who I talked to ___ smiled.
  • The child to whom I talked ___ smiled.
    • Oblique is reltativized.
  • The child who I thought you liked __ smiled.
    • What is relativized?
order of relative clause and head noun
Order of relative clause and head noun
  • English:
    • The relative clause is after the head noun
  • Turkish
    • The relative clause is before the head noun.
combination of strategies
Combination of strategies

Gap for subject, gap or pronoun for object, pronoun for everything else.

wh questions english
Wh-questions: English
  • Gap in subject position:
    • Who ___ likes Ann?
  • Gap in object position:
    • Who does Ann like __?
  • Gap in oblique position:
    • Who did you talk to __?
    • To whom did you talk __?
  • Gap in embedded clause (long distance):
    • Who do you think that he saw __?
constraints on long distance dependencies
Constraints on Long-Distance Dependencies
  • Where can the gap be?
  • John Robert (Haj) Ross (1967) Ph.D. Thesis, MIT
constraints on long distance dependencies1
Constraints on Long Distance Dependencies
  • The gap cannot be inside a coordinate structure.
    • I saw [the boy and the girl].
    • *Who did you see the boy and ___.
  • Except in “across the board” extraction:
    • Who did you [ [talk to___] and [hear rumors about __] ]
constraints on long distance dependencies2
Constraints on Long Distance Dependencies
  • The gap cannot be inside a sentence that is inside a noun phrase:
    • I like [the fact that he reads books every day].
    • *What do you like the fact that he reads ___ every day?
constraints on long distance dependencies3
Constraints on Long Distance Dependencies
  • The gap cannot be inside the subject:
    • [ Pictures of Sam ] were available.
    • *Who were [ pictures of ___ ] available?
    • [ Books about linguistics ] were on sale.
    • *What were [ books about ___ ] on sale?
  • But the gap can be inside the direct object:
    • You saw [ pictures of Sam].
    • Who did you see [ pictures of ___ ] ?
    • You read [ books about linguistics].
    • ?What did you read books about?
constraints on long distance dependencies4
Constraints on Long Distance Dependencies
  • The gap cannot be inside an embedded question:
    • They wondered [ who __ talked to Sam].
    • *Who did they wonder [ who __ talked to __]?
  • But the gap can be inside of a plain embedded clause:
    • They thought [ (that) we talked to Sam ].
    • Who did they think [(that) we talked to ___ ] ?
constraints on long distance dependencies5
Constraints on Long Distance Dependencies
  • The gap cannot be inside a relative clause or any another long distance dependency:
    • I like [ the boy that Sam plays with ___.]
    • *Who do you like [the boy that __ plays with __].
  • Except for this:
    • Which violins are [ these sonatas easy to play ___ on ___]?
ad