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Name _____________________ Date _________ Period ____. Valence Electron Interaction and Charges. The Role of Electrons in Bonding. The sharing or transfer of electrons is what holds atoms together in a compound Typically, only the electrons in the

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Name date period

Name _____________________ Date _________ Period ____

Valence Electron Interaction and Charges


The role of electrons in bonding

The Role of Electrons in Bonding

  • The sharing or transfer of

    electrons is what holds atoms together in a

    compound

    • Typically, only the electrons in the

      outer energy level are used for bonding.

      • These electrons are called Valence Electrons

      • The outer energy level is called the Valence Shell


Comprehension check

Comprehension Check

  • How many electron shells does phosphorus have?

    • 3

  • How many valence electrons does phosphorus have?

    • 5


Pwyr valence schmalence

PWYR – Valence Schmalence

  • tin

    • 4

  • arsenic

    • 5

  • strontium

    • 2

  • bromine

    • 7

  • sodium

    • 1

  • tellurium

    • 6

  • gallium

    • 3

  • krypton

    • 8


Bonding

Bonding

  • Ionic Bonds – Results from the complete

    transfer of electrons

    • Results in a formation of two charged atoms called ions

      • The atom that gains electrons becomes negatively charged and is called an anion

      • The atom that loses electrons becomes positively charged and is called a cation


Octet rule

Octet Rule

  • Octet Rule: atoms want to have a full valence shell (8 valence electrons)

    • Atoms react with one another in an attempt to gain or lose electrons to fill their valence shell

    • During a reaction, electrons can be shared or completely transferred

  • Two options

    • Gain electrons to fill valence shell

    • Lose electrons to reveal full shell below outer shell (outer shell)


  • Oxidation numbers

    Oxidation Numbers

    • Oxidation Numbers tell us how many electrons an atom is willing to lose or gain

      • Positive oxidation numbers indicate that the atom can lose that many electrons

      • Negative oxidation numbers indicate that the atom can gain that many electrons

      • Some atoms have more than one possibility

        • Transition Metals


    Alkali and a halogen valence electrons

    Alkali and a Halogen Valence Electrons

    Missing Electron

    Extra Electron


    Name date period

    • valence electron = 1

    • Easier to give away for full valence shell

    • Cation = positive

      -getting ride of

      negative particle

    • Charge = +1

    • valence electron = 7

    • Easier to take in for full valence shell

    • Anion = Negative

      - taking in negative

      particle

    • Charge = -1


    Periodic table

    Periodic Table

    • Groups have same valence electrons

      • Same oxidation number

    8

    1

    7

    0

    -1

    2

    +1

    5

    3

    4

    6

    -3

    -2

    +2

    +3

    +/-4


    Comprehension check to gain or not to gain

    Comprehension Check- To Gain or Not to Gain

    • Nitrogen 

    • Beryllium 

    • Xenon 

    • carbon 

    • Oxygen 

    • Lithium 

    • Chlorine 

    • Boron 

    Gain 3

    Lose 2

    None

    Gain/Lose 4

    • Gain 2

    • Lose 1

    • Gain 1

    • Lose 3


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