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Cell Biology. Prokaryotic Cell Small ~ 1-2 µm 01-50 µm Max.? Min.? No Nucleus Little Internal Structure Some are Motile Unicellular or Cluster. Eukaryote 10-200 μ m. Nanobacteria. 0.1 μ m 10 4 – 10 5 /ml Ocean waters 0.15 μ m minimum size?. Always Exceptions? Max?

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Cell Biology

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Cell Biology

Prokaryotic Cell

  • Small ~ 1-2µm

    • 01-50 µm

      Max.? Min.?

  • No Nucleus

  • Little Internal Structure

  • Some are Motile

  • Unicellular or Cluster

Eukaryote 10-200 μm


Nanobacteria

  • 0.1 μm

  • 104 – 105 /ml

  • Ocean waters

  • 0.15 μm minimum size?


Always Exceptions? Max?

E. fishelsoni - 600µm

Multiple genomes


Cell Shapes

  • Bacillus

  • Coccus

  • Spirillum

  • Spirochetes

  • Appendaged


Cell Clusters

  • Pairs – Diplo…

    Diplococcus

  • Chains – Strepto..

    Streptococcus

  • Others –

    Staphylococcus


Cytoplasmic Membrane

  • Phospholipid Bilayer

  • No Sterols

  • Bacteria & Eukaryotes

  • Ester linkages

  • Archaea

  • Ether linkage

  • Lipid monolayer

  • Thermophiles


Membrane Function

  • Diffusion –osmotic pressure

  • Selective Permeability

  • Transport Proteins

  • Simple Transport –proton motive force


Group Translocation

Glucose PEP

Pyruvate

Glucose - 6 - PO4

Transport linked to first step of Glycolysis


ABC System Transport

  • Periplasmic-binding protein

  • Membrane-spanning protein

  • Kinase


Export

  • Translocase

  • Signal sequence

  • Exoenzymes

  • Toxins


Bacterial Cell Wall

  • Peptidoglycan,

  • Murein Layer

  • n-acetylglucosamine

  • n-acetylmuramic acid

  •  1-4 Linkage

  • Peptide Cross Links


Diaminopimelic acid - all G-

Lysine - most G+

d-Alanine, d-Glutamic acid


Gram Positive Cell Wall

  • Multi-Track layer

  • 25 layers

  • Teichoic Acid

  • Lysozyme

    Protoplast

  • Autolysins


Teichoic –Lipoteichoic acid


Gram Positive

Gram Negative


Gram Negative Envelope

  • Outer Membrane

    Lipopolysaccharides

  • Peptidoglycan

  • Periplasmic space

  • Cytoplasmic Membrane


Gram Negative Outer Membrane

  • Lipopolysaccharides

  • Endotoxins

    Pyrogens -Lipid A

  • Core Polysaccharide

  • O Polysaccharide

  • Porins

  • Periplasmic Space


Archaea Cell Wall

Pseudopeptidoglycan

Β 1-3 linkages

N acetyltalosaminuronic acid

S-Layer - most common


Prokaryotic DNA

  • Closed Circles

  • E. coli chromosome has 4.6 million Bases

  • Supercoiled

  • Haploid

  • Sometimes Plasmids


Outer Surface

Flagella

Pili - Fimbriae

Capsule

Slime Layer

Glycocalyx


Flagella

  • Polar flagella

  • Lophotrichous

  • Peritrichous flagella

  • Flagellin

  • Self Assembly


Inclusion Bodies

  • Poly--Hydroxybutyric Acid

  • Glycogen


Polyphosphate –Metachromatic granules

Sulfur


  • Magnetosomes

Varied morphology


Gas Vesicles

Protein coat


Endospores

  • Most Resistance Cell

  • Withstand Boiling

  • Formed in Cells

  • Contains Calcium dipicolinic Acid 10%

Bacillus & Clostridium


Endospores

need 200 genes

May live?

250 million years


Taxis

  • Chemotaxis

  • Tumbles – Runs

  • Phototaxis

  • Magnetotaxis

  • Gliding?

  • Twitching


Eukaryotic Cells

  • Contains Organelles

  • Nucleus

  • Mitochondria

  • Chloroplasts


Endosymbiotic Theory


Cell Biology Word List


Cell Biology Word List 2


Cell Biology Word List 3


Cell Biology Word List 4


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