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CSCW & Groupware. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 490 F Autumn 2006. Background. CSCW grew from discontent with single user HCI methods applied to multi-user technologies and settings Focus on Workplace activity Understanding nature of collaborative tasks

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CSCW & Groupware

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CSCW & Groupware

Computer Supported Cooperative Work

490 F Autumn 2006


Background

  • CSCW grew from discontent with single user HCI methods applied to multi-user technologies and settings

  • Focus on

    • Workplace activity

    • Understanding nature of collaborative tasks

    • Co-evolution of technologies and communities

  • Early apps

    • CAD, computer integrated manufacturing, computer aided software engineering, office automation


What is CSCW?

  • Work is a social activity

    • People and their activities are integral to design of technology

  • Workers may have social proximity despite physical/temporal distance.

    • The water cooler effect.


CSCW focuses on people working with others

Community

Organization

Project teams

Small groups

Individuals

CSCW

HCI

traditional HCI


Related Fields

  • Behavioural Science

    • Social psychology

    • Organizational science

    • Anthropology

    • Sociology

  • Computer Science

    • Distributed computing

    • Networking

    • User interface/visualization

    • Mobile & wireless

  • Telecommunications

    • Telephony

    • video


Related methods

Involve users!

  • User Centered Design

    • Focus on user at the interface

  • Management Studies

    • Focus on decision making

  • Contextual Analysis and Design

    • Interviews in work settings

  • Participatory Design

    • Have the user be a designer

  • Anthropology/Ethnography

    • Long term study of groups/organizations


Face to Face communication

  • Personal Space

  • Eye contact and gaze

    • Can convey interest, confusion, boredom

  • Gestures and body language

  • Back channels, confirmation, interruption

    • Back channels = nods, shrugs, small noises

  • Turn Taking

    • Ums, ahs, pauses

  • What happens when these channels are unavailable?


Face to Face vs CMI

Communication

Face to Face

Coordination

Information

Computer mediated interaction

Communication

Coordination

Information


Beyond Being There

  • What are some advantages of computer mediated collaboration over face to face?


Dimensions of Cooperation

Location

Time

What are some examples of applications in these areas?


Dimensions of Cooperation

Location

Time

What are some examples of applications in these areas?


Location

Time

Where would google documents fit?


Activity Spectrum

Awareness

Shared Experience

Loosely coupled activity

Social Activities

Informal Interactions

Locating Colleagues

Office Sharing

Meetings

Focused work tasks

Highly interactive activity


Organizational Issues

  • Who benefits?

  • Free rider problem

  • Critical mass

  • Changing power structures

Benefits of use

Cost of use

Number of users

Critical Mass


Other issues

  • Reciprocity / Symmetry

    • If you do work for a system, you should get some benefit

  • Fitting in with organizational structure and values

  • Flexibility

  • Cost

    • Setup

    • Maintenance


Granularity

Network system with locking

Large

Small

Chunk size

Shared editor

FrequentInfrequent

Update


Groupware systems

  • Email

  • Videoconferencing

  • Lotus Notes

  • Bulletin Boards

  • Google Documents


Email

  • Where does it fit?

  • Why is it successful? Where has it failed?

Place/Space

Time


Videoconferencing

  • Where does it fit?

  • Why isn’t it more popular?

Place/Space

Time


Videoconferencing

  • What are the difficulties?

  • How has it failed?

  • How has it succeeded?

  • How could it be improved?

    • Clearboard/Teamworkstation (Ishii et al)

    • VideoWhiteboard (Tang et al)


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