The Ottoman Empire (Click the map for animation). . European Partitioning. European Partitioning. . An Excellent NPR Report on Partitioning of the Middle East (Click the Graphic Below). History of the Middle East since the 20th Century (Click graphic for animation). History of Iraq. This region was part of the Ottoman Empire in the 1500's.During WWI, Great Britain set up the Kingdom of Iraq and put a Pro-British ruler into power..
1. Middle East History Review European Partitioning in the Middle East
2. The Ottoman Empire (Click the map for animation)
3. European Partitioning
4. European Partitioning
5. An Excellent NPR Report on Partitioning of the Middle East (Click the Graphic Below)
8. History of the Middle East since the 20th Century (Click graphic for animation)
9. History of Iraq This region was part of the Ottoman Empire in the 1500’s.
During WWI, Great Britain set up the Kingdom of Iraq and put a Pro-British ruler into power.
10. History of Iraq In the 1950’s this government was overthrown.
After a series of other governmental changes the Ba’ath Party too power in 1968.
11. Iraq: Saddam Hussein A Ba’ath leader named Saddam Hussein became the president.
Saddam Hussein was a harsh ruler. He controlled the press, restricted personal freedoms and killed numerous political enemies.
Iraq was the second largest oil exporter in the world.
12. Iraq: Iraq/Iran War In 1980 Iraq invaded Iran.
Saddam Hussein was worried that the Shia Islamic revolution that was taking place in Iran would spill over into Iraq.
14. Iraq’s Oil Fields
15. Iraq: Iraq/Iran War Saddam Hussein decided to take advantage of the chaos in Iran and invade without being noticed.
The Iranians fought back and the Iraq/Iran war continued until 1988. Both countries suffered.
16. Iraq: Persian Gulf War In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait.
Western world leaders were afraid to have Saddam Hussein in control of such a large share of the world’s oil.
Western world leaders also thought Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (WMD’s) (chemical and biological weapons)
17. Iraq: Persian Gulf War An alliance of countries (including U. S. and Great Britain) forced the Iraqis out of Kuwait
18. Iraq: Persian Gulf War
19. Iraq: Results of The Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein remained in power in Iraq.
Because Saddam refused to accept U. N. terms for peace, the U. N. placed an embargo on Iraq.
Iraq’s economy suffered as a result of the embargo.
600 oil fields in Kuwait were set on fire with devastating environmental affects.
23. History of Iran In 1921, an Iranian military officer took power claimed the old Persian title of “Shah”, or king.
In 1941 the Shah’s son took control who was an ally to the United States and Britain. He also wanted to modernize Iran.
24. Iran: Iranian Revolution Unfortunately for him, the modernization programs were unpopular.
In 1979, he was overthrown during
25. Iran: Takes American Hostages Iran’s new government set up an Islamic Republic.
Relations with the United States broke down.
In 1979, a mob of Iranian students took American’s hostage.
26. Iran: Takes American Hostages The Iranian government gave permission for the Americans to be taken hostage.
The Americans were held by force for over 1 year.
27. Iran The Iranian Revolution (1979) was followed by the Iraq/Iran War which began in 1980 (and discussed earlier in this presentation).
28. Iran: Government Iran is a theocracy – a government ruled by religious leaders.
29. Iran: Government Iran has an elected president and legislature (chosen by the spiritual leader).
30. Iran: Government
An expert on Islamic law is the supreme leader.
31. Iran: Government
32. Iran: Governmental Policies Iran’s government has supported many hard-line policies.
For example: call for the destruction of Israel
For example: supported terrorist groups
33. Afghanistan: The Khyber Pass Afghanistan is a land-locked country with very high mountains.
The Khyber Pass is a narrow passage through the Hindu Kush Mountains that lie between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
34. Afghanistan: The Khyber Pass
Merchants, warriors, and missionaries have long used the Khyber Pass to reach India.
35. Afghanistan: History In 1979, (around the same time as the Iranian Revolution discussed earlier), The Soviet Union sent troops to Afghanistan to help the communist government there in a civil war.
36. Afghanistan: History This led to a long war between Soviet troops and Afghan rebels (Mujahedeen).
The United States was supporting the Afghan rebels.
In 1989, an alliance of Afghan rebel groups took power and the Soviet troops left.
37. Afghanistan: History Turmoil in Afghanistan continued and in the mid-1990’s a radical Muslim group called the Taliban arose.
The Taliban took over most of Afghanistan and ruled strictly.
The Taliban forced women to wear veils and stop working outside the home.
40. Afghanistan: History The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks were traced to Osama bin Laden and his al Qaeda network based in Afghanistan.
42. Afghanistan: Terrain causes Political Problems
Why can’t we find Osama bin Laden or at least win and end the current war in Afghanistan?
The rugged terrain makes it difficult to organize, fight, and rule people.