Biochemistry
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Biochemistry. Study of chemical reactions that take place in our body everyday Chemical reactions allow us to remain alive Rearrangement of chemical bonds to form products from reactants. Macromolecules. Water . Most abundant molecule in any cell

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Biochemistry

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry

  • Study of chemical reactions that take place in our body everyday

  • Chemical reactions allow us to remain alive

    • Rearrangement of chemical bonds to form products from reactants


Macromolecules

Macromolecules


Water

Water

  • Most abundant molecule in any cell

  • Acts as a carrier for dissolved molecules across cell membrane

  • Used in chemical reactions

    • Cellular respiration, photosynthesis

  • Lubricant between organs, tissues, and cells


What makes water so important

What Makes Water so Important?

  • Remains liquid over wide range of temps

  • Dissolves most substances important for cellular function

    • Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, amino acids

  • Gradual change in temperature when heated or cooled – helps maintain homeostasis

  • Expands when it becomes solid

  • Polar – uneven charge


What makes water so important1

What Makes Water so Important?


Water1

Water

  • Dipole nature

    • Two charges that belong to a water molecule

    • Small positive charge on two hydrogen atoms

    • Small negative charge on oxygen atom


Biochemistry

What do you notice about this picture?


Macromolecules1

Macromolecules

  • Organic compounds

    • Contain both hydrogen and carbon

  • Large molecules composed of smaller subunits

    • Carbohydrates

    • Proteins

    • Lipids

    • Nucleic Acids


Carbohydrates sugars

Carbohydrates (Sugars)

  • Biomolecule consisting of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

  • General molecular formula (CnH₂nOn) (C₆H₁₂O₆)

  • Roles

    • Energy storage - plants

    • Structural support in cells and tissues

  • Hydrophilic

  • Pentose/Hexose ring structure


Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides

  • Used as primary energy source for cellular metabolism (making ATP)

  • 1 sugar unit

    • Glucose – grape sugar, blood sugar

    • Fructose – honey, fruit juices


Disaccharides

Disaccharides

  • Consist of two monosaccharides

    • Maltose – used to make beer

    • Sucrose – simple sugar found in plant sap

    • Lactose – milk

  • Used as energy sources and building blocks for larger molecules


Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides

  • Complex carbohydrate/polymer

    • Chain of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides (monomers) with many subunits

    • Unbranched – side chains

    • Branched – single chain


Examples

Examples

  • Amylose – soluble component of starch

  • Glycogen – energy storage in animals

  • Cellulose – main component of plant cell walls

  • Chitin – hard exoskeleton of insect and crustaceans


Lipids

Lipids

  • Non-polar

  • Made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen

  • Do not dissolve in water

  • Roles

    • Formation of cell membranes

    • Energy source

    • Hormones

    • Vitamins


Fatty acids

Fatty Acids

  • Derivative of most lipids (structural backbone)

  • Consists of

    • glycerol (alcohol)

    • 3 molecules of fatty acids

  • As chain length increases, insolubility in water increases


Fatty acids1

Fatty Acids

  • Saturated

    • Max number of hydrogen atoms attached to carbons

    • Single bonds throughout the carbon chain

  • Unsaturated

    • Formation of double bonds in carbon chain

    • Monounsaturated – one double bond

    • Polyunsaturated – many double bonds

    • Causes a bent formation in molecule


Cholesterol

Cholesterol

  • Formed in the liver

  • Structural component of plasma membrane

  • Function

    • Maintain membranes

    • proper membrane permeability/fluidity

  • Types

    • LDL – low density lipoprotein

      • Promote cardiovascular disease

    • HDL – high density lipoprotein

      • Good cholesterol – removes cholesterol from artery


Proteins

Proteins

  • Each cell contains several hundred to several thousand proteins

  • Composed of many amino acids linked together by a peptide bond that form a polypeptide chain


Proteins1

Proteins

  • Structural – framework support (Eg; hair, tendon, ligaments)

  • Defensive – infection fighters (Eg; antibodies)

  • Signal – messenger (Eg; hormones)

  • Carrier – transport of materials (Eg; hemoglobin)

  • Recognition and Receptor – cellular markers (Eg; major histocompatability complex)

  • Enzyme – catalyst (Eg; amylase)

  • Motile – movement (Eg; actin and myosin)


Amino acids

Amino Acids

  • 20 different amino acids

    • 8 essential - supplied by diet

  • Contain:

    • Central carbon

    • Amino group (-NH₂)

    • Carboxyl group (-COOH)

    • R group

  • R groups give each amino acids specific characteristics

    • Polarity, acidity


Amino acids1

Amino Acids


Protein structure

Protein Structure

  • Primary Structure 1⁰

    • Linear sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain

    • Changing one amino acid with change overall structure of protein


Protein structure1

Protein Structure

  • Secondary Structure 2⁰

    • Polypeptides fold or coil into patterns

    • Result of hydrogen bonding

    • β-pleated sheets

      • Side-by-side alignment

      • (Eg; strength of silk)

    • α-helix

      • Coil that is held together by hydrogen bonds between every 4th amino acid

      • (Eg; transmembraneproteins)


Protein structure2

Protein Structure

  • Tertiary Structure 3⁰

    • 3-D shape of a protein

    • Caused by folding


Protein structure3

Protein Structure

  • Quaternary Structure 4⁰

    • Composed of 2 or more polypeptides

    • Functional proteins


Protein denaturation

Protein Denaturation

  • When a protein loses its 3-D structure

  • Often irreversible

  • Extreme temperatures

  • pH

  • Chemcials


Nucleic acids

Nucleic Acids

  • Polynucleotide chains serve as assembly instructions for all proteins in living organisms

  • 2 Types

    • DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid

      • Stores hereditary information

    • RNA – Ribonucleic acid

      • Hereditary molecule of some viruses

      • Involved in protein synthesis

  • Composed of nucleotides

  • Linked by a phosphodiester bond


Nucleotides

Nucleotides

  • Consists of

    • Nitrogenous base

      • Uracil (U), thymine (T), cytosine (C), adenine (A), guanine (G)

    • Sugar

    • Phosphate groups

  • Functions

    • Transport

      chemical energy

    • Regulate and

      adjust cellular

      activity


Biochemistry

DNA

  • Consists of

    • Deoxyribose sugar

    • Phosphate group

    • A, T, C, G

  • Double stranded molecule (Double Helix)

    • Two strands of DNA run antiparallel to each other (opposite direction)

    • 5’ to 3’

    • 5’ is the end with the phosphate group

    • 3’ is where deoxyribose sugar is located

  • Nitrogenous bases

    • Held together by hydrogen bonds

    • A pairs with T ( forms double bond)

    • C pairs with G (forms a triple bond)

  • http://i-biology.net/2012/01/15/drew-berrys-animations-of-unseeable-biology-ted-talk/


Biochemistry

RNA

  • Consists of

    • Ribose sugar

    • Phosphate group

    • A, U, C, G

  • Single stranded molecule

  • Converts information stored in DNA into proteins


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