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OAS REGIONAL PROJECT. QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODULES 3 & 4. PRESENTER :. Marcia Henry Manager, Project & Quality Management Systems Scientific Research Council. Course Objectives. Understanding the Seven Principles of HACCP

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Oas regional project

OAS REGIONAL PROJECT

QUALITY MANAGEMENT

MODULES 3 & 4


Presenter

PRESENTER:

Marcia Henry

Manager, Project & Quality Management Systems

Scientific Research Council


Course objectives
Course Objectives

  • Understanding the Seven Principles of HACCP

  • Understanding the Guidelines for the Development of a HACCP Plan for each Enterprise

  • Understanding the Principles and Requirements for Quality Documentation


Haccp

HACCP

HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS


What is haccp
What is HACCP?

  • HACCP Systems Are Designed to Prevent and Control Food SafetyHazards Associated With Food From the Time a Company Receives Raw Material, Through Production to Distribution to the Consumer


What is haccp1
What is HACCP?

  • It Is a Preventive, Systematic System for Ensuring Food Safety

  • It Is Not a Stand-alone System

    • HACCP Systems Must Be Built on a Firm Foundation of Compliance With Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Acceptable Sanitation Control Procedures (SCP) for It to Work Effectively


Haccp versus traditional
HACCP versus Traditional

  • Traditional Methods Evaluate Processing Practices on the Day or Days of Inspection

  • HACCP Allows Regulators to Look at What Happens at the Plant Through Time by Examining the Monitoring and Corrective Action Records of the Enterprise


Haccp1
HACCP

  • Emphasizes Process Control

  • Concentrates on the Points in the Process That Are Critical to the Safety of the Product

  • Stresses Communication Between the Regulator and Industry


Haccp2
HACCP

  • Applicable to Any Food ChainFrom Primary Production to Final Consumer. The Idea of “Farm to Fork”

  • Emphasizes Commitment of Top Management and Involvement of People (Staff)


Prerequisite programmes
Prerequisite Programmes

  • GMP and Sanitation Procedures Affect the Processing Environment and Should Be Considered Prerequisite Programs to HACCP

  • Prerequisite Programs Are Procedures Including GMP, that Address Operational Conditions Providing the Foundation for the HACCP System


Prerequisite programmes1
Prerequisite Programmes

  • When Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) are well designed and fully and effectively implemented they are valuable in controlling hazards

  • With SSOPs in place, HACCP can be more effective since they would concentrate on controlling hazards associated with the food or processing and not on the processing plant environment


HACCP & HAZARDS

  • Hazard Refers to Conditions or Contaminants That Can Cause Illness or Injury.


Food hazards
FOOD HAZARDS

  • A hazard is a biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control


3 types of food hazard
3 TYPES OF FOOD HAZARD

  • BIOLOGICAL

  • CHEMICAL

  • PHYSICAL



Biological hazards
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

  • BACTERIAL

  • VIRAL

  • PARASITIC


Bacterial hazards
BACTERIAL HAZARDS

  • CAN BE INTRODUCED DURING THE PROCESSING OF FOODS FROM:

    • The People Involved in the Processing

    • The Environment in Which the Food Is Processed

    • From Other Ingredients in the Product

    • From the Processes Themselves


Bacterial hazards1
BACTERIAL HAZARDS

  • Bacterial hazards are defined as bacteria that, if they occur in food, may cause illness in humans, either by infection or intoxication

  • Bacterial hazards can be grouped into spore formers and non-spore formers.

  • Spores are normally very resistant to chemicals, heat and other treatments


What do microorganisms need
What Do Microorganisms Need?

  • Food

  • Water

  • Proper Temperature

  • Air, No Air, Minimal Air

    Without adequate amount of these, microorganisms stop growing and multiplying. Some die; others stop functioning until they get the elements theyneed (spore formers)


Sporeforming bacteria
Sporeforming Bacteria

  • These include the following:

    • Clostridium botulinum

    • Clostridium perfringens

    • Bacillus cereus


Non sporeforming bacteria
Non-sporeforming Bacteria

  • These include the following:

    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g. E. coli 0157:H7)

    • Streptococcus pyrogenes

    • Salmonella spp

    • Listeria monocytogenes

    • Campylobacter spp.


Viral hazards
Viral Hazards

  • Viruses exists everywhere

  • They are very small particles that cannot be seen with a light microscope

  • Viruses exists in food without growing. They do not cause spoilage

  • Viruses cause illness by infection


Viral hazards1
Viral Hazards

  • Viruses only grow once they enter a suitable host

  • Only some viruses consider humans a suitable host

  • Viruses can survive in human intestines, contaminated water and frozen foods for months


Viruses
Viruses

  • Include the following:

    • Hepatitis A virus – causes fever and abdominal discomfort, followed by jaundice

    • Norwalk virus – causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain (gastroenteritis). Headache and low-grade fever may also occur

    • Rotavirus


Action
ACTION

  • Transmission of viruses to foods is usually related to Poor Hygiene Practices.

  • Food handlers must wash and sanitize their hands properly


ACTION

  • Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in a food-safety problem should be prevented or controlled by a HACCP programme

  • Microorganisms that will cause food spoilage must be controlled


Parasitic hazards
Parasitic Hazards

  • Parasites are organisms that need a host to survive, living on or within it

  • Parasitic worms and protozoa are two types of parasites that can infect people through food and water


Parasitic worms
Parasitic Worms

  • Include the following:

    • Roundworms (nematodes) e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides that causes intestinal and lung infection

    • Tapeworms (cestodes) e.g. Diphyllobothrium latum that attaches itself to the intestinal walls and can grow up to 7 feet long. Causes abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhoea.

    • Flukes (trematodes)


Protozoa
Protozoa

  • Single-celled animals

  • Most cannot be seen without a microscope

    • Examples: Giardia lamblia that causes diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, fatigue, nausea, flatulence (intestinal gas) and weight loss. Illness may last up to two weeks but chronic infections can last months to a year

    • Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentry (severe bloody diarrhoea)



Chemical hazards
Chemical Hazards

  • Chemicals Are Not Hazardous If Properly Used and Controlled

  • The Presence of a Chemical May Not Always Represent a Hazard

  • The Amount of the Chemical May Determine Whether It Is a Hazard or Not.

  • Regulatory Limits Are Set for Some Chemical Contaminants


Chemical hazards1
Chemical Hazards

  • 3 Categories

    • Naturally Occurring Chemicals

    • Intentionally Added Chemicals

    • Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals


Naturally occurring chemicals
Naturally Occurring Chemicals

  • These Include Allergens and Are Derived From a Variety of Plants, Animals and Microorganisms

    • Examples: Mycotoxins e.g. Aflatoxin From Moulds That Can Grow on Corn & nuts; Scombrotoxin; Shellfish Toxins

    • Certain Varieties of Nuts and Seafood Produce an Allergic Reaction in Sensitive People


Intentionally added chemicals
Intentionally Added Chemicals

  • These are Chemicals that are added to food at some point during the food’s growth and distribution

  • Safe when used at established safe levels but can be dangerous when those levels are exceeded



Intentionally added chemicals1
Intentionally Added Chemicals

  • Food processors should review the appropriate regulations for approval status and any limitations on the use of food additives


Unintentionally or incidentally added chemicals
Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

  • Agricultural Chemicals (e.g. pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones)

  • Prohibited Chemicals (Reference: Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 21, Section 189)


Unintentionally or incidentally added chemicals1
Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

  • Toxic elements and compounds (e.g. lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, cyanide)

  • Secondary direct and indirect e.g. lubricants, cleaning compounds, sanitizers and paints


Unintentionally or incidentally added chemicals2
Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

  • Packaging materials that are in direct contact with the ingredient or the product can be a source of incidental chemicals, such as sanitizers or inks

  • These are of concern if they are in too high an amount



Physical hazards
Physical Hazards

  • Include any harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food.

  • If eaten may cause choking, injury or other adverse health effects

  • Most commonly reported consumer complaints because the injury occurs immediately or soon after eating and the source is often easy to be identified




Principles of haccp
PRINCIPLES OF HACCP

  • Conduct Hazard Analysis

  • Determine Critical Control Points in the Process

  • Establish Critical Limits

  • Monitor Each Critical Control Point

  • Establish Corrective Actions

  • Establish Verification Procedures

  • Establish Record Keeping and Documentation Procedures


SOME DEFINITIONS

  • CONTROL

  • CONTROL MEASURE

  • CONTROL POINT

  • CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

  • CRITICAL LIMIT

  • HAZARD


Principle 1
PRINCIPLE 1

  • Conduct a Hazard Analysis

    • Must look at the:

      • Likelihood of occurrence and

      • Severity (seriousness of a hazard)

    • For each food safety hazard, identify a preventive measure


Principle 2
PRINCIPLE 2

  • Identify The Critical Control Points in the Process

    • This is a point, step or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels

    • The Decision Tree Approach can be used to determine CCP


Principle 3
PRINCIPLE 3

  • Establish Critical Limits for Each Critical Control Point

    • A Critical Limit Is the Maximum or Minimum Value to Which a Physical, Biological or Chemical Hazard Must Be Controlled at a Critical Control Point to Prevent, Eliminate or Reduce to an Acceptable Level, the Occurrence of the Identified Food Safety Hazard


Principle 4
PRINCIPLE 4

  • Establish Monitoring Procedure for Each Critical Control Point

    • These are Activities that are done routinely either by an employee or mechanically, to measure the process at a given CCP, and create a record for future use. These include employee observations or checks and records from instruments

    • Physical and chemical monitoring procedures are preferred over microbial approaches because they provide rapid feedback.


Principle 5
PRINCIPLE 5

  • Establish Corrective Actions

    • These are the activities to be taken when there is deviation from critical limits

    • This is a very important principle as deviations from critical limits will occur. The enterprise must ensure that deviations do not lead to unsafe foods


Principle 6
PRINCIPLE 6

  • Establish Verification Procedures

    • These procedures must ensure that the HACCP plan is working correctly and effectively

    • Ongoing verification: includes tasks such as calibrating monitoring instruments, observing monitoring activities and corrective actions and reviewing HACCP records to see that they are being made and kept according to plan.

    • Validation: initial phase in which the plan is tested and reviewed.

    • Reassessment: an overall review of the plan that must be performed at least annually.


Principle 7
PRINCIPLE 7

  • Establish Effective Record Keeping and Documentation Procedures

    • 4 kinds of categories are kept as part of the HACCP system:

      • HACCP Plan and support documentation

      • Records of CCP monitoring

      • Records of Corrective Action

      • Records of Verification Activities



Preliminary steps
PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Establish the HACCP TEAM

    • This should include at least one person that is trained in HACCP

    • Consider including human resources that may be outside your company who has experience in HACCP control systems e.g. UWI Dept. of Chemistry, Food Chemistry Unit


Preliminary steps1
PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Description of the following:

    • Food or Food Product;

    • Method of Distribution

    • Intended Use

    • Intended Consumer

      Example:

  • Bottled ready to drink coconut water distributed and sold refrigerated, to be used by the general public


Preliminary steps2
PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Development and Verification of the Product’s Flow Diagram

    • This Is a Simple Flow Showing the Steps Required to Manufacture and Distribute a Food Product.

    • It Is an Important Visual Tool that the HACCP Team Can Use to Complete the Remaining Steps for Development of the HACCP Plan


Preliminary steps3
PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Management Commitment

    • For a HACCP plan to work, it is extremely important to have the support of TOP COMPANY OFFICIALS. Without it, HACCP will not become a company priority or be effectively implemented


Preliminary steps4
PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • HACCP Training

    • Education and Training Are Important Elements in Developing and Implementing a HACCP Plan

    • Employees Who Will Be Responsible for the HACCP Program Must Be Adequately Trained in Its Principles.


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