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OAS REGIONAL PROJECT. QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODULES 3 & 4. PRESENTER :. Marcia Henry Manager, Project & Quality Management Systems Scientific Research Council. Course Objectives. Understanding the Seven Principles of HACCP

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Oas regional project

OAS REGIONAL PROJECT

QUALITY MANAGEMENT

MODULES 3 & 4


Presenter

PRESENTER:

Marcia Henry

Manager, Project & Quality Management Systems

Scientific Research Council


Course objectives

Course Objectives

  • Understanding the Seven Principles of HACCP

  • Understanding the Guidelines for the Development of a HACCP Plan for each Enterprise

  • Understanding the Principles and Requirements for Quality Documentation


Haccp

HACCP

HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS


What is haccp

What is HACCP?

  • HACCP Systems Are Designed to Prevent and Control Food SafetyHazards Associated With Food From the Time a Company Receives Raw Material, Through Production to Distribution to the Consumer


What is haccp1

What is HACCP?

  • It Is a Preventive, Systematic System for Ensuring Food Safety

  • It Is Not a Stand-alone System

    • HACCP Systems Must Be Built on a Firm Foundation of Compliance With Current Good Manufacturing Practices and Acceptable Sanitation Control Procedures (SCP) for It to Work Effectively


Haccp versus traditional

HACCP versus Traditional

  • Traditional Methods Evaluate Processing Practices on the Day or Days of Inspection

  • HACCP Allows Regulators to Look at What Happens at the Plant Through Time by Examining the Monitoring and Corrective Action Records of the Enterprise


Haccp1

HACCP

  • Emphasizes Process Control

  • Concentrates on the Points in the Process That Are Critical to the Safety of the Product

  • Stresses Communication Between the Regulator and Industry


Haccp2

HACCP

  • Applicable to Any Food ChainFrom Primary Production to Final Consumer. The Idea of “Farm to Fork”

  • Emphasizes Commitment of Top Management and Involvement of People (Staff)


Prerequisite programmes

Prerequisite Programmes

  • GMP and Sanitation Procedures Affect the Processing Environment and Should Be Considered Prerequisite Programs to HACCP

  • Prerequisite Programs Are Procedures Including GMP, that Address Operational Conditions Providing the Foundation for the HACCP System


Prerequisite programmes1

Prerequisite Programmes

  • When Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs) are well designed and fully and effectively implemented they are valuable in controlling hazards

  • With SSOPs in place, HACCP can be more effective since they would concentrate on controlling hazards associated with the food or processing and not on the processing plant environment


Oas regional project

HACCP & HAZARDS

  • Hazard Refers to Conditions or Contaminants That Can Cause Illness or Injury.


Food hazards

FOOD HAZARDS

  • A hazard is a biological, chemical or physical agent that is reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its control


3 types of food hazard

3 TYPES OF FOOD HAZARD

  • BIOLOGICAL

  • CHEMICAL

  • PHYSICAL


Biological hazards or pathogens

BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS OR PATHOGENS


Biological hazards

BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS

  • BACTERIAL

  • VIRAL

  • PARASITIC


Bacterial hazards

BACTERIAL HAZARDS

  • CAN BE INTRODUCED DURING THE PROCESSING OF FOODS FROM:

    • The People Involved in the Processing

    • The Environment in Which the Food Is Processed

    • From Other Ingredients in the Product

    • From the Processes Themselves


Bacterial hazards1

BACTERIAL HAZARDS

  • Bacterial hazards are defined as bacteria that, if they occur in food, may cause illness in humans, either by infection or intoxication

  • Bacterial hazards can be grouped into spore formers and non-spore formers.

  • Spores are normally very resistant to chemicals, heat and other treatments


What do microorganisms need

What Do Microorganisms Need?

  • Food

  • Water

  • Proper Temperature

  • Air, No Air, Minimal Air

    Without adequate amount of these, microorganisms stop growing and multiplying. Some die; others stop functioning until they get the elements theyneed (spore formers)


Sporeforming bacteria

Sporeforming Bacteria

  • These include the following:

    • Clostridium botulinum

    • Clostridium perfringens

    • Bacillus cereus


Non sporeforming bacteria

Non-sporeforming Bacteria

  • These include the following:

    • Pathogenic Escherichia coli (e.g. E. coli 0157:H7)

    • Streptococcus pyrogenes

    • Salmonella spp

    • Listeria monocytogenes

    • Campylobacter spp.


Viral hazards

Viral Hazards

  • Viruses exists everywhere

  • They are very small particles that cannot be seen with a light microscope

  • Viruses exists in food without growing. They do not cause spoilage

  • Viruses cause illness by infection


Viral hazards1

Viral Hazards

  • Viruses only grow once they enter a suitable host

  • Only some viruses consider humans a suitable host

  • Viruses can survive in human intestines, contaminated water and frozen foods for months


Viruses

Viruses

  • Include the following:

    • Hepatitis A virus – causes fever and abdominal discomfort, followed by jaundice

    • Norwalk virus – causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain (gastroenteritis). Headache and low-grade fever may also occur

    • Rotavirus


Action

ACTION

  • Transmission of viruses to foods is usually related to Poor Hygiene Practices.

  • Food handlers must wash and sanitize their hands properly


Oas regional project

ACTION

  • Food spoilage or decomposition that can result in a food-safety problem should be prevented or controlled by a HACCP programme

  • Microorganisms that will cause food spoilage must be controlled


Parasitic hazards

Parasitic Hazards

  • Parasites are organisms that need a host to survive, living on or within it

  • Parasitic worms and protozoa are two types of parasites that can infect people through food and water


Parasitic worms

Parasitic Worms

  • Include the following:

    • Roundworms (nematodes) e.g. Ascaris lumbricoides that causes intestinal and lung infection

    • Tapeworms (cestodes) e.g. Diphyllobothrium latum that attaches itself to the intestinal walls and can grow up to 7 feet long. Causes abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhoea.

    • Flukes (trematodes)


Protozoa

Protozoa

  • Single-celled animals

  • Most cannot be seen without a microscope

    • Examples: Giardia lamblia that causes diarrhoea, abdominal cramps, fatigue, nausea, flatulence (intestinal gas) and weight loss. Illness may last up to two weeks but chronic infections can last months to a year

    • Entamoeba histolytica that causes dysentry (severe bloody diarrhoea)


Oas regional project

CHEMICAL HAZARDS


Chemical hazards

Chemical Hazards

  • Chemicals Are Not Hazardous If Properly Used and Controlled

  • The Presence of a Chemical May Not Always Represent a Hazard

  • The Amount of the Chemical May Determine Whether It Is a Hazard or Not.

  • Regulatory Limits Are Set for Some Chemical Contaminants


Chemical hazards1

Chemical Hazards

  • 3 Categories

    • Naturally Occurring Chemicals

    • Intentionally Added Chemicals

    • Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals


Naturally occurring chemicals

Naturally Occurring Chemicals

  • These Include Allergens and Are Derived From a Variety of Plants, Animals and Microorganisms

    • Examples: Mycotoxins e.g. Aflatoxin From Moulds That Can Grow on Corn & nuts; Scombrotoxin; Shellfish Toxins

    • Certain Varieties of Nuts and Seafood Produce an Allergic Reaction in Sensitive People


Intentionally added chemicals

Intentionally Added Chemicals

  • These are Chemicals that are added to food at some point during the food’s growth and distribution

  • Safe when used at established safe levels but can be dangerous when those levels are exceeded


Potential chemical hazards

Potential Chemical Hazards


Intentionally added chemicals1

Intentionally Added Chemicals

  • Food processors should review the appropriate regulations for approval status and any limitations on the use of food additives


Unintentionally or incidentally added chemicals

Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

  • Agricultural Chemicals (e.g. pesticides, fungicides, herbicides, fertilizers, antibiotics and growth hormones)

  • Prohibited Chemicals (Reference: Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 21, Section 189)


Unintentionally or incidentally added chemicals1

Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

  • Toxic elements and compounds (e.g. lead, zinc, arsenic, mercury, cyanide)

  • Secondary direct and indirect e.g. lubricants, cleaning compounds, sanitizers and paints


Unintentionally or incidentally added chemicals2

Unintentionally or Incidentally Added Chemicals

  • Packaging materials that are in direct contact with the ingredient or the product can be a source of incidental chemicals, such as sanitizers or inks

  • These are of concern if they are in too high an amount


Oas regional project

PHYSICAL HAZARDS


Physical hazards

Physical Hazards

  • Include any harmful extraneous matter not normally found in food.

  • If eaten may cause choking, injury or other adverse health effects

  • Most commonly reported consumer complaints because the injury occurs immediately or soon after eating and the source is often easy to be identified


Physical hazards1

Physical Hazards


Oas regional project

7 PRINCIPLES OF HACCP


Principles of haccp

PRINCIPLES OF HACCP

  • Conduct Hazard Analysis

  • Determine Critical Control Points in the Process

  • Establish Critical Limits

  • Monitor Each Critical Control Point

  • Establish Corrective Actions

  • Establish Verification Procedures

  • Establish Record Keeping and Documentation Procedures


Oas regional project

SOME DEFINITIONS

  • CONTROL

  • CONTROL MEASURE

  • CONTROL POINT

  • CRITICAL CONTROL POINT

  • CRITICAL LIMIT

  • HAZARD


Principle 1

PRINCIPLE 1

  • Conduct a Hazard Analysis

    • Must look at the:

      • Likelihood of occurrence and

      • Severity (seriousness of a hazard)

    • For each food safety hazard, identify a preventive measure


Principle 2

PRINCIPLE 2

  • Identify The Critical Control Points in the Process

    • This is a point, step or procedure in a food process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels

    • The Decision Tree Approach can be used to determine CCP


Principle 3

PRINCIPLE 3

  • Establish Critical Limits for Each Critical Control Point

    • A Critical Limit Is the Maximum or Minimum Value to Which a Physical, Biological or Chemical Hazard Must Be Controlled at a Critical Control Point to Prevent, Eliminate or Reduce to an Acceptable Level, the Occurrence of the Identified Food Safety Hazard


Principle 4

PRINCIPLE 4

  • Establish Monitoring Procedure for Each Critical Control Point

    • These are Activities that are done routinely either by an employee or mechanically, to measure the process at a given CCP, and create a record for future use. These include employee observations or checks and records from instruments

    • Physical and chemical monitoring procedures are preferred over microbial approaches because they provide rapid feedback.


Principle 5

PRINCIPLE 5

  • Establish Corrective Actions

    • These are the activities to be taken when there is deviation from critical limits

    • This is a very important principle as deviations from critical limits will occur. The enterprise must ensure that deviations do not lead to unsafe foods


Principle 6

PRINCIPLE 6

  • Establish Verification Procedures

    • These procedures must ensure that the HACCP plan is working correctly and effectively

    • Ongoing verification: includes tasks such as calibrating monitoring instruments, observing monitoring activities and corrective actions and reviewing HACCP records to see that they are being made and kept according to plan.

    • Validation: initial phase in which the plan is tested and reviewed.

    • Reassessment: an overall review of the plan that must be performed at least annually.


Principle 7

PRINCIPLE 7

  • Establish Effective Record Keeping and Documentation Procedures

    • 4 kinds of categories are kept as part of the HACCP system:

      • HACCP Plan and support documentation

      • Records of CCP monitoring

      • Records of Corrective Action

      • Records of Verification Activities


Preliminary steps in developing a haccp plan

Preliminary Steps in Developing a HACCP Plan


Preliminary steps

PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Establish the HACCP TEAM

    • This should include at least one person that is trained in HACCP

    • Consider including human resources that may be outside your company who has experience in HACCP control systems e.g. UWI Dept. of Chemistry, Food Chemistry Unit


Preliminary steps1

PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Description of the following:

    • Food or Food Product;

    • Method of Distribution

    • Intended Use

    • Intended Consumer

      Example:

  • Bottled ready to drink coconut water distributed and sold refrigerated, to be used by the general public


Preliminary steps2

PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Development and Verification of the Product’s Flow Diagram

    • This Is a Simple Flow Showing the Steps Required to Manufacture and Distribute a Food Product.

    • It Is an Important Visual Tool that the HACCP Team Can Use to Complete the Remaining Steps for Development of the HACCP Plan


Preliminary steps3

PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • Management Commitment

    • For a HACCP plan to work, it is extremely important to have the support of TOP COMPANY OFFICIALS. Without it, HACCP will not become a company priority or be effectively implemented


Preliminary steps4

PRELIMINARY STEPS

  • HACCP Training

    • Education and Training Are Important Elements in Developing and Implementing a HACCP Plan

    • Employees Who Will Be Responsible for the HACCP Program Must Be Adequately Trained in Its Principles.


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