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P13222: FSAE Turbocharger Integration. Kevin Ferraro, Phillip Vars , Aaron League Ian McCune, Brian Guenther, Tyler Peterson. Introduction. Turbocharger integration to improve scoring potential of 2013 car GT-Power simulation Used to select turbocharger

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P13222 fsae turbocharger integration

P13222: FSAE Turbocharger Integration

Kevin Ferraro, Phillip Vars, Aaron League

Ian McCune, Brian Guenther, Tyler Peterson


Introduction
Introduction

  • Turbocharger integration to improve scoring potential of 2013 car

  • GT-Power simulation

    • Used to select turbocharger

    • Assisted with intake and exhaust design

    • Used to simulate torque and fuel consumption map for Lap Time Simulator

  • Lap Time Simulator

    • Used to compare vehicle parameters to determine scoring tradeoffs

    • Shows that performance gain of turbocharging is worth the fuel efficiency and weight penalties


Project goals
Project Goals

  • Select appropriate turbocharger for engine package

  • Design engine peripherals to maximize efficiency and power of powertrain

  • Utilize electronic boost control to enable tuning of fuel efficiency and power for each event via different engine maps

  • Comply with FSAE and FSG rules

  • Design and test for reliability and relatively easy maintenance




System architecture
System Architecture

  • Induction

  • Turbocharger

  • Boost control

  • Engine

  • Exhaust system

  • Mounting



Final simulation model
Final Simulation Model

  • GT-Power is a 1-D engine simulation software

  • Allows engine flow components to be modeled as 1-D approximations

  • Very good at simulating flow transients and resonances

  • Good at modeling Turbocharger system

  • Must be validated thru testing


Turbo selection
Turbo Selection

Comparison of GT0632 VS GT1238. GT12 is close to surge line until 6500 RPM. GT06 is near maximum efficiency until higher engine speeds.


Turbocharger efficiency
Turbocharger Efficiency

  • GT06 turbine operates close to peak efficiency over most of operating range

  • Compressor is near peak efficiency until higher engine speeds

    • This is acceptable since boost will be reduced at higher engine speeds anyway


Results from simulation
Results From Simulation

  • Comparisons with Turbocharged (Red) and naturally aspirated powertrain (Blue)

  • Top Left: Power

  • Top Right: Torque

  • Bottom Left: Manifold air pressure

  • Bottom Right: BSFC


Transient data
Transient Data

  • GT Power allows the simulation of transient flow characteristics

  • Can be used for simulation validation by making similar measurements on the Dyno

  • Can also be used to identify performance limitations

    • Cam profile is not ideal, however stock cams are better than Hotcam alternatives

  • PV Diagram Mass Flow Thru Valves Static Pressure in Restrictor


Lap time simulation
Lap Time Simulation

  • Lap Time Simulator used to find scoring potential of possible configurations

  • Shows that performance gain of turbocharger outweighs fuel efficiency and weight penalties


Turbocharger modifications
Turbocharger Modifications

  • Flange modifications:

  • Weight savings of 883g

  • Allowed mounting to single port for single cylinder engine (designed for two cylinder diesel)


Turbocharger mounting
Turbocharger-Mounting

  • Needs:

    • positioned and constrained robustly

    • allow for thermal expansion

    • isolate from vibration to maximum degree possible

    • follow turbocharger specs for proper lubrication to ensure longevity

  • Structural analysis

  • Modal analysis

  • Verification through testing


Intercooler
Intercooler

Size-based off intake flow rate and packaging constraints

GT Power model simulated effect on overall system

Needs to be verified with test data

CFD analysis-ensure proper airflow based on full car location

CFD analysis-shroud design for maximum efficiency


Intercooler modification
Intercooler-Modification

Material removal from intercooler core resulted in 192.2g weight reduction

Additional weight savings with carbon fiber end tanks


Intake fuel delivery
Intake/Fuel Delivery

  • Intake shape-packaging constraints, desired volume, runner length

    • Utilized DOE within GT Power for iterative analysis

    • Plenum diameter varied 3-8 inches-5.5” chosen-packaging/performance compromise

    • Runner varied 5-12 inches-9” chosen-packaged better than slightly better 12” length

  • CFD analysis-verify no unusual flow patterns

  • Cone geometry of injector spray based on data from Delphi

  • 2 stage injection system

    • Primary (near intake port) improved starting, low speed operation

    • Secondary (plenum) maximize atomization at high speeds, minimize wall wetting



Electronic boost control
Electronic Boost Control

  • Needed to allow tuning flexibility-boost varied for different events

  • Three-way solenoid in-line between manifold pressure and wastegate diaphragm, vented to atmosphere

  • Solenoid controlled via PWM from ECU according to a PID control algorithm to achieve desired boost level


Exhaust
Exhaust

  • DOE utilized within GT Power

  • Header length varied .5-3.5”

    • 3.5” best, 2.5” chosen-packaging

  • Exhaust length varied .5-8”

    • Minimal effect on performance

  • Header bomb simulated

    • Minimal effect on performance-not adopted

  • Thin walled (.020”) Commercially Pure Grade 2 Titanium chosen for exhaust

    • High working temp

    • Low density





Testing
Testing

  • Testing to begin on DC Motor Dynamometer as soon as remaining components are manufactured

  • Dyno setup modified to accommodate intake and exhaust systems

  • Testing/tuning with actual components-delayed start, but save manufacturing time/cost, more accurate validation, calibration

  • Measurements will include:

    • Torque

    • Engine Speed

    • Crank Angle

    • Cylinder Pressure

  • Temp and Press will be measured at:

    • Intake Before Intercooler

    • Intake After Intercooler

    • Intake Plenum

    • Exhaust Near Exhaust Port

    • Exhaust After Turbine

  • Data logging will be once per degree of crank angle to verify transients


Lessons learned
Lessons Learned

  • Engine simulation allowed for single iteration of manufacturing-saves time/resources-depends on simulation accuracy

  • Simulation results sensitive to input parameters- many initially unverified

  • Power generated is knock-limited (no feasible way to simulate)

  • Scoring potential trade-off between fuel efficiency and lap time depends on performance of fastest car at competition


Future work
Future Work

  • Finish manufacturing

  • Complete testing

  • Verify simulation, change parameters if necessary to ensure accurate future simulations

  • Make multiple ECU maps for different events

  • Install in car

  • Tune based off driver feedback

  • Ensure noise level meets regulations

  • Win at competition


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