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Lecture # 2. Computer Hardware. Computers are all around!. Grocery store Schools Libraries Bank Mail Malls. We interact with computers everyday!. Computer System.

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Lecture 2

Lecture # 2

ComputerHardware


Computers are all around
Computers are all around!

  • Grocery store

  • Schools

  • Libraries

  • Bank

  • Mail

  • Malls

We interact with computers everyday!


A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions (software) stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate data (process), and produce information (output) from the processing. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.


A computer is an electronic device used to process data.

  • A computer can convert data into information that is useful to people.

  • A complete computer system includes four distinct parts:

  • Hardware

  • Software

  • Data

  • User


“A computer is a programmable machine that receives input, storesandmanipulatesdata/information, and provides output in a useful format.”


Computers consist of hardware and software

Hardware

All the machinery and equipment in a computer system

Software

All the instructions that tell the computer how to perform a task

Computers consist of hardware and software.

If you can touch it, it’s hardware


Off and on
Off and On

  • Computers only recognize off and on, like a light switch

  • These switches are represented as binary digits or… bits

  • Instructions and data are composed only of a series of bits


Why is a computer so powerful
Why Is A Computer So Powerful?

  • The ability to perform the information processing cycle with amazing speed.

  • Reliability (low failure rate).

  • Accuracy.

  • Ability to store huge amounts of data and information.

  • Ability to communicate with other computers


How does a computer know what to do
How Does a Computer Know what to do?

  • It must be given a detailed list of instructions, called a compute program, algorithms or software, that tells it exactly what to do.

  • Before processing a specific job, the computer program corresponding to that job must be stored in memory.

  • Once the program is stored in memory the computer can start the operation by executing the program instructions one after the other.


What are the primary components of a computer
What Are The Primary Components Of A Computer ?

  • Input devices.

  • Central Processing Unit (containing the control unit and the arithmetic/logic unit).

  • Memory.

  • Output devices.

  • Storage devices.


How a Computer System Works

Storage

Information

Data

Input

Output

Process


Function of computer system
Function of Computer System

Data handling

I Input

P Process

O Output

S Storage


01101111

10001111

01101010

10000000

01001010


Off and on1
Off and On

  • Computers only recognize off and on, like a light switch

  • These switches are represented as binary digits or… bits

  • Instructions and data are composed only of a series of bits


Hardware your physical interface
HARDWARE: Your Physical Interface

  • A binary digit (bit) is the smallest unit of information that your computer can process.

  • A bit can be either 1 (on) or 0 (off).

  • ASCIIis a common coding system used to represent all characters, symbols and numbers in binary form.

  • In ASCII a group of 8 bits is called a byte.


Hardware your physical interface1
HARDWARE: Your Physical Interface

Example:

  • If you type cool on the keyboard, your keyboard would change it into four bytes as follows:

    01000011 01001111 01001111 01001100

    C o o l


Bytes
Bytes

  • Eight bits form a single byte

    • “00110011” is One Byte of Information

  • Byte Values:

    • 00000000 = 0

    • 11111111 = 255

  • As a result, binary numbers almost always written as a full byte (00000001).


We count in base 10 decimal
We count in Base 10 (Decimal)

19

18

17

16

15

3

4

5

24

6

10

9

2

11

12

13

8

1

95

14

7

96

97

98

99

100

101

20

21

22

23

0

Ran out of symbols (0-9), so increment the digit on the left by one unit.


Computers count in base 2 binary
Computers count in Base 2 (Binary)

  • Counting in Binary is the same, but with only two symbols

    • On (1)

    • Off (0)

10000

1001

1010

1011

1000

1101

1110

1111

1100

0

111

101

100

11

10

1

110


Converting binary to decimal
Converting Binary to Decimal

1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

128

+

0

+

32

+

0

+

8

+

4

+

0

+

0

128 + 32 + 8 + 4 = 172


Converting binary to decimal1
Converting Binary to Decimal

0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

0

+

64

+

0

+

16

+

0

+

0

+

0

+

1

64 + 16 + 1 = 81


Converting binary to decimal2
Converting Binary to Decimal

- - -  - 

128

64

32

16

8

4

2

1

0

+

0

+

0

+

16

+

0

+

4

+

2

+

1

16 + 4 + 2 + 1 = 23


Size matters
Size Matters

Computer memory and storage capacities are represented by their size (megs, gigs, etc)

  • 1 , 0   = 1 bit

  • 4 bits = 1 hex character (nibble)

  • 8 bits = 1 byte

  • 2^10 = 1,024 bytes or 1 Kilobyte (thousand)

  • 2^20 = 1,048,576 bytes or 1 Megabyte (million)

  • 2^30 = 1,073,741,824 or 1 Gigabyte (billion)

  • 2^40 = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes or 1 Terabyte (trillion)


Generic input devices
Generic Input devices

  • Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form

  • Getting data into the computer

    • Typing on a keyboard

    • Pointing with a mouse

    • Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader


Generic input devices1
Generic Input Devices

Keyboard

  • Data is entered by manually typing certain keys.

  • A keyboard typically has 101 or 105 keys.

  • Most keyboards use the QWERTY layout, named for the first six keys in the top row of letters.

gaming keyboard

Rollup Keyboards


Generic input devices2
Generic Input Devices

MOUSE

  • Is a pointing device which is used to control the movement of a mouse pointer on the screen to make selections from the screen.

  • The bottom of the mouse contains a mechanism that detects movement of the mouse.



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