Phylum annelida
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Phylum: Annelida. “ringed”, commonly called segmented worms Examples: earthworms, marine worms, leeches. Traits. Segmented, round, wormlike bodies. Traits. Bilateral symmetry. Traits. cephalized. Traits. Ventral nerve cord. Traits.

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Phylum annelida
Phylum: Annelida

  • “ringed”, commonly called segmented worms

  • Examples: earthworms, marine worms, leeches


Traits
Traits

  • Segmented, round, wormlike bodies


Traits1
Traits

  • Bilateral symmetry


Traits2
Traits

  • cephalized


Traits3
Traits

  • Ventral nerve cord


Traits4
Traits

  • Tube-in-a-tube digestive system with specialized regions


Traits5
Traits

  • Closed circulatory system – blood doesn’t leave the vessels


Traits6
Traits

  • Paired nephridia


Traits7
Traits

  • Respire through their skin


Typical invertebrates
Typical invertebrates

  • Earthworms are about halfway between the simplest and most complex invertebrates


Classes
Classes

Oligochaeta

Polychaeta

Hirudinea


Oligochaeta
Oligochaeta

  • “few bristles”, no parapodia

  • E.g. – earthworms, tubifex worms


Benefits of earthworms
Benefits of Earthworms

  • improves aeration

  • increases water and nutrient movement through the soil 

  • Castings are rich in nutrients



  • Charles Darwin went so far as to say of earthworms, “It may be doubted whether there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world, as have these lowly organized creatures.” He believed that earthworms are wholly responsible for the top layer of rich soil on the Earth



Giant gippsland earthworm in australia
Giant longGippsland Earthworm in Australia

Up to 15 feet stretched out!




Worm farming
Worm Farming long

  • Used for compost

  • Sold for fishing bait


Tubifex worms
Tubifex long Worms


Polychaeta
Polychaeta long

  • “many bristles”, have parapodia, largest class of annelids

  • E.g. – marine worms, tube worms


Parapodia
Parapodia long

  • mainly used in respiration




Venomous Setae long

If touched, the setae will detach and lodge in the skin causing burning, itching, and numbness from the toxins they contain




Oligochaeta long

Polychaeta

Hirudinea


Hirudinea
Hirudinea long

  • No bristles or parapodia, have suckers

  • E.g. – leeches (blood suckers)


Leeches are longEctoparasites



Leech removal
Leech Removal? long

  • use your fingernail or something flat to break the seal of their suckers

Irritating them can cause them to regurgitate their stomach contents in the wound, risking infection or disease


Medicinal uses
Medicinal uses long

  • Past – to suck out evil blood, to remove bruises


Medicinal uses1
Medicinal uses long

  • Present – reattachment surgery, blood thinner



Summary: clotting and dilate blood vessels A 45-year-old, white male patient who suffered a complete avulsion of the upper two-thirds of his right ear. The ear was reattached by doing a microvascularanastomosis of a small artery anteriorly. No veins were available for anastomosis. Soon after anastomosis, there was obvious venous congestion. Medicinal leeches were used for treating venous congestion

48 Hours:3 leeches have been applied every 8 hours. Following the initial application, obvious improvement was noted

  • 24 Hours:Photograph shows severe venous congestion in the reimplanted ear following complete avulsion.

  • 6 Days:The entire reimplanted ear was viable and healing well.

  • 72 Hours:3 leeches have been applied every 8 hours for periods of 15 to 30 minutes. Marked improvement in color with decreased swelling and congestion was noted.

  • Two Months:Complete survival of re-attached ear


Also testing to be able to
Also testing to be able to… clotting and dilate blood vessels

  •  treat arthritis, blood clotting disorders, and varicose veins.


Demi moore leech therapy
Demi clotting and dilate blood vessels Moore Leech Therapy?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYeqPvv5s_E


Giant leeches
Giant Leeches clotting and dilate blood vessels


Earthworm structure

Earthworm Structure clotting and dilate blood vessels


Earthworm structure1
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Prostomuim – 1st segment, before mouth, contains lots of sensory nerves


Earthworm structure2
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Clitellum – thick band around the worm, involved in reproduction


Earthworm structure3
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Setae – little bristles that give the worm traction for movement


Earthworm structure4
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Mouth – entrance to the digestive system


Earthworm structure5
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Pharynx – (throat) sucks in food


Earthworm structure6
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Esophagus – carries food from the pharynx to the crop


Earthworm structure7
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Crop – stores food, lets worm eat a lot of food at one time and digest it later


Earthworm structure8
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Gizzard – grinds the food


Earthworm structure9
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Intestines – finishes digestion, absorbs food


Earthworm structure10
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Anus – exit of the digestive system


Earthworm structure11
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Aortic arches – 5 pairs (hearts), pump blood


Earthworm structure12
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Dorsal blood vessel – carries blood away from the hearts


Earthworm structure13
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Ventral blood vessel – carries blood back to the hearts


Earthworm structure14
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Brain – coordinates and controls the body


Earthworm structure15
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Ventral nerve cord – carries messages between the brain and the body


Earthworm structure16
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Ganglia – bundles of nerves


Earthworm structure17
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Seminal vesicles – store sperm


Earthworm structure18
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Seminal receptacles – receive sperm from other worm


Earthworm structure19
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Muscles – both longitudinal and circular – lets them lengthen and shorten their bodies


Earthworm structure20
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Cuticle – non-cellular layer that protects the skin from gritty soil


Earthworm structure21
Earthworm structure clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • Nephridia – collect, concentrate, and eliminate wastes, don’t loose as much water


Earthworm reproduction
Earthworm reproduction clotting and dilate blood vessels

  • hermaphrodites – exchange sperm


  • Night crawlers also mate on the surface. They are hermaphroditic but do not self-fertilize. Following mating, each worm forms a tiny, lemon-shaped cocoon out of a liquid secreted from its clitellum, the familiar-looking bulge seen near the first third of the earthworm’s body. The sperm and egg cells are deposited inside the cocoon, and it is buried. After a two- to four-week gestation period, the baby worms emerge.


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