Phylum annelida
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Phylum: Annelida. “ringed”, commonly called segmented worms Examples: earthworms, marine worms, leeches. Traits. Segmented, round, wormlike bodies. Traits. Bilateral symmetry. Traits. cephalized. Traits. Ventral nerve cord. Traits.

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Phylum: Annelida

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Phylum annelida

Phylum: Annelida

  • “ringed”, commonly called segmented worms

  • Examples: earthworms, marine worms, leeches


Traits

Traits

  • Segmented, round, wormlike bodies


Traits1

Traits

  • Bilateral symmetry


Traits2

Traits

  • cephalized


Traits3

Traits

  • Ventral nerve cord


Traits4

Traits

  • Tube-in-a-tube digestive system with specialized regions


Traits5

Traits

  • Closed circulatory system – blood doesn’t leave the vessels


Traits6

Traits

  • Paired nephridia


Traits7

Traits

  • Respire through their skin


Typical invertebrates

Typical invertebrates

  • Earthworms are about halfway between the simplest and most complex invertebrates


Classes

Classes

Oligochaeta

Polychaeta

Hirudinea


Oligochaeta

Oligochaeta

  • “few bristles”, no parapodia

  • E.g. – earthworms, tubifex worms


Benefits of earthworms

Benefits of Earthworms

  • improves aeration

  • increases water and nutrient movement through the soil 

  • Castings are rich in nutrients


Usually feed on decaying organic matter can eat 1 times their weight

Usually feed on decaying organic matter – can eat ½ -1 times their weight


Phylum annelida

  • Charles Darwin went so far as to say of earthworms, “It may be doubted whether there are many other animals which have played so important a part in the history of the world, as have these lowly organized creatures.” He believed that earthworms are wholly responsible for the top layer of rich soil on the Earth


Phylum annelida

Earthworms vary in size from a centimeter to several meters long


Giant gippsland earthworm in australia

Giant Gippsland Earthworm in Australia

Up to 15 feet stretched out!


Blue luminescent earthworms in australia

Blue luminescent earthworms in Australia


Phylum annelida

  • Striped earthworm in Australia just discovered in 2007


Worm farming

Worm Farming

  • Used for compost

  • Sold for fishing bait


Tubifex worms

Tubifex Worms


Polychaeta

Polychaeta

  • “many bristles”, have parapodia, largest class of annelids

  • E.g. – marine worms, tube worms


Parapodia

Parapodia

  • mainly used in respiration


Phylum annelida

Blood worm


Phylum annelida

Bristle worm


Phylum annelida

Venomous Setae

If touched, the setae will detach and lodge in the skin causing burning, itching, and numbness from the toxins they contain


Tube worms make a tube for protection

Tube Worms – make a tube for protection


Marine worms

Marine worms


Phylum annelida

Oligochaeta

Polychaeta

Hirudinea


Hirudinea

Hirudinea

  • No bristles or parapodia, have suckers

  • E.g. – leeches (blood suckers)


Phylum annelida

Leeches are Ectoparasites


Phylum annelida

Leach attacking a slug


Leech removal

Leech Removal?

  • use your fingernail or something flat to break the seal of their suckers

Irritating them can cause them to regurgitate their stomach contents in the wound, risking infection or disease


Medicinal uses

Medicinal uses

  • Past – to suck out evil blood, to remove bruises


Medicinal uses1

Medicinal uses

  • Present – reattachment surgery, blood thinner


Phylum annelida

  • Leech saliva contains compounds that reduce pain, prevent clotting and dilate blood vessels. This prevents the tissue from dying off and allows the body to reestablish good blood flow to the reattached part.


Phylum annelida

Summary: A 45-year-old, white male patient who suffered a complete avulsion of the upper two-thirds of his right ear. The ear was reattached by doing a microvascularanastomosis of a small artery anteriorly. No veins were available for anastomosis. Soon after anastomosis, there was obvious venous congestion. Medicinal leeches were used for treating venous congestion

48 Hours:3 leeches have been applied every 8 hours. Following the initial application, obvious improvement was noted

  • 24 Hours:Photograph shows severe venous congestion in the reimplanted ear following complete avulsion.

  • 6 Days:The entire reimplanted ear was viable and healing well.

  • 72 Hours:3 leeches have been applied every 8 hours for periods of 15 to 30 minutes. Marked improvement in color with decreased swelling and congestion was noted.

  • Two Months:Complete survival of re-attached ear


Also testing to be able to

Also testing to be able to…

  •  treat arthritis, blood clotting disorders, and varicose veins.


Demi moore leech therapy

Demi Moore Leech Therapy?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYeqPvv5s_E


Giant leeches

Giant Leeches


Earthworm structure

Earthworm Structure


Earthworm structure1

Earthworm structure

  • Prostomuim – 1st segment, before mouth, contains lots of sensory nerves


Earthworm structure2

Earthworm structure

  • Clitellum – thick band around the worm, involved in reproduction


Earthworm structure3

Earthworm structure

  • Setae – little bristles that give the worm traction for movement


Earthworm structure4

Earthworm structure

  • Mouth – entrance to the digestive system


Earthworm structure5

Earthworm structure

  • Pharynx – (throat) sucks in food


Earthworm structure6

Earthworm structure

  • Esophagus – carries food from the pharynx to the crop


Earthworm structure7

Earthworm structure

  • Crop – stores food, lets worm eat a lot of food at one time and digest it later


Earthworm structure8

Earthworm structure

  • Gizzard – grinds the food


Earthworm structure9

Earthworm structure

  • Intestines – finishes digestion, absorbs food


Earthworm structure10

Earthworm structure

  • Anus – exit of the digestive system


Earthworm structure11

Earthworm structure

  • Aortic arches – 5 pairs (hearts), pump blood


Earthworm structure12

Earthworm structure

  • Dorsal blood vessel – carries blood away from the hearts


Earthworm structure13

Earthworm structure

  • Ventral blood vessel – carries blood back to the hearts


Earthworm structure14

Earthworm structure

  • Brain – coordinates and controls the body


Earthworm structure15

Earthworm structure

  • Ventral nerve cord – carries messages between the brain and the body


Earthworm structure16

Earthworm structure

  • Ganglia – bundles of nerves


Earthworm structure17

Earthworm structure

  • Seminal vesicles – store sperm


Earthworm structure18

Earthworm structure

  • Seminal receptacles – receive sperm from other worm


Earthworm structure19

Earthworm structure

  • Muscles – both longitudinal and circular – lets them lengthen and shorten their bodies


Earthworm structure20

Earthworm structure

  • Cuticle – non-cellular layer that protects the skin from gritty soil


Earthworm structure21

Earthworm structure

  • Nephridia – collect, concentrate, and eliminate wastes, don’t loose as much water


Earthworm reproduction

Earthworm reproduction

  • hermaphrodites – exchange sperm


Phylum annelida

  • Night crawlers also mate on the surface. They are hermaphroditic but do not self-fertilize. Following mating, each worm forms a tiny, lemon-shaped cocoon out of a liquid secreted from its clitellum, the familiar-looking bulge seen near the first third of the earthworm’s body. The sperm and egg cells are deposited inside the cocoon, and it is buried. After a two- to four-week gestation period, the baby worms emerge.


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