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Native and Colonial America. Unit I AP U.S. History. Bering Sea Land Bridge Migration. Natives. Nomads Agriculturally-based (maize/corn) Hopewells /Mississippian Moundbuilders Iroquois Iroquois Confederacy. Native Map of North America. Europe. Renaissance (rebirth)

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native and colonial america

Native and Colonial America

Unit I

AP U.S. History

natives
Natives
  • Nomads
  • Agriculturally-based (maize/corn)
  • Hopewells/Mississippian
    • Moundbuilders
  • Iroquois
    • Iroquois Confederacy
europe
Europe
  • Renaissance (rebirth)
  • Growth of Nation-States (England, France, Spain, Portugal)
  • Protestant Reformation and Religious Wars
    • Lutheranism
    • Calvinism - predestination
    • Church of England aka Anglican Church
    • Catholic Counter-Reformation
european colonization
European Colonization
  • Columbus in 1492 spearheads European intervention into America
  • Relations with natives
    • Spain
      • Encomienda system and asiento system
    • England
    • France
england
England
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a superior naval power
  • Population increases
  • Joint-stock companies develop
  • Religious conflicts divide the nation
  • Weak monarchs, civil wars, and revolutions
english colonies
English Colonies
  • Charters
  • Corporate Colony
    • Granted a charter to stockholders
    • Ex. Virginia
  • Proprietary Colony
    • Granted a charter to individual or group
    • Ex. Maryland, Pennsylvania
  • Royal Colony
    • Under direct control of the monarch
    • Ex. New Hampshire
    • Eventually, 8 of the 13 colonies became royal colonies, including Virginia and Massachusetts
the first english colonies
The First English Colonies
  • First Attempt: Roanoke in 1585
  • First Permanent: Jamestown, Virginia in 1607
    • John Smith – “he that will not work shall not eat”
    • John Rolfe - tobacco
pilgrims
Pilgrims
  • Separatists to Holland then head for Virginia
  • Mayflower takes Separatists and others to Jamestown but weather complicates matters
  • Settlers decide to remain and establish Plymouth - 1620
new england
New England
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony and Puritans (1630)
    • John Winthrop and “city upon a hill”
  • Providence, Rhode Island, and Roger Williams (1636)
    • “Wall of separation”
  • Portsmouth and Anne Hutchinson (1638)
    • Antinomianism
  • Hartford, New Haven, Connecticut, and Thomas Hooker (1636-1637)
  • New Hampshire (1679)
new england culture
New England Culture
  • Massachusetts under strict Puritanical lifestyle
  • Religious toleration and dissent lead to Rhode Island
  • Halfway Covenant: attempt to increase members
  • Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693)
    • Cotton Mather
    • Spectral evidence
  • Education by mothers
  • Towns with over 50 families required primary schools; 100, grammar schools
new england politics
New England Politics
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)
    • First written constitution in America
  • New England Confederation (1643-1684)
    • Defense alliance among Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven
  • King Philip’s (Metacom) War (1675-1676)
    • New England Confederation defeats Wampanoag alliance
middle colonies
Middle Colonies
  • New Amsterdam transferred to Duke of York in 1664 to become New York
  • Lands taken from New York to establish New Jersey by 1702
  • Develop wheat and corn farms and eventually into manufacturing and trade
  • Delaware created by Pennsylvania (1702)
  • Education by private or churches
pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
  • William Penn establishes Quaker-based colony in Pennsylvania (1681)
  • Religious Society of Friends aka Quakers
  • Holy Experiment
    • Religious refuge
    • Liberal political ideals
    • Economic success
    • Frame of Government and Charter of Liberties
southern colonies
Southern Colonies
  • Maryland (1634)
  • Virginia (1607)
  • Carolinas (1663)
    • North Carolina (1729)
    • South Carolina (1729)
  • Georgia (1732)
  • Limited education due to agricultural base
virginia
Virginia
  • House of Burgesses in 1619
    • First legislative assembly in the colonies
  • Becomes royal colony in 1624
  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)
    • Inequities between large landowners and western farmers
    • Nathanial Bacon vs. William Berkeley
  • Headright System
    • 50 acres to each paying immigrant or plantation owner who paid for immigrant
maryland
Maryland
  • Lord Baltimore establishes colony for Catholics
  • Act of Toleration (1649)
    • Toleration of all Christian sects
    • Death to those who denied Jesus
  • Religious civil war brought control to Protestants
carolinas
Carolinas
  • North Carolina
    • Tobacco plantations
    • Well-established autonomy
  • South Carolina
    • Rice plantations
    • Became heavily dependent on slavery
georgia
Georgia
  • James Oglethorpe establishes in 1732
    • Social experiment
  • Defensive buffer to Spanish Florida
  • Debtors colony
colonial religion
Colonial Religion
  • Diverse among colonies regarding strict adherence and religious toleration
  • Domination by Protestants; little influence of Anglican Church; other sects and denominations viewed as bizarre
  • The Great Awakening (1730s-1740s)
    • Over time, economics became prominent over religious conviction
    • Jonathan Edwards and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
    • George Whitefield
    • Development of evangelism and individual faith
colonial politics
Colonial Politics
  • Limited Self-Government
    • Elected legislative assemblies
    • Governors
  • Voting
    • Limited to adult male educated and/or property owners
colonial society
Colonial Society
  • American Social Structure
    • Wealthy landowners
    • Merchants
    • Small farmers
    • Craftspeople
  • Opportunity
    • Less dependent on heredity
  • Gender Roles
    • Men
      • Patriarchal society, landowners, workers
    • Women
      • Submissive to men but respected, domestic responsibilities, limited to no political rights
colonial american culture
Colonial American Culture
  • Becoming American
    • Pragmatism
  • Dominance of English culture
  • Folkways
    • Differed by coast/frontier, New England/Middle/Southern colonies
colonial culture the arts
Colonial Culture - The Arts
  • Architecture
    • Early colonies centered around a church
    • Urban structures typical of English structures
    • Frontier log cabins
  • Painting
    • Portrait painters and landscapes
  • Literature
    • Religious sermons, political essays, non-fiction books
    • Poor Richard’s Almanac - Benjamin Franklin
colonial culture education and information
Colonial Culture - Education and Information
  • Learning
    • Prominent in New England colonies
    • Education limited to wealthy males; females learned domestic chores
  • Newspapers
    • Limited content on weekly basis
    • John Peter Zenger case (1735)
immigration
Immigration
  • 250,000 in 1701 to 2.5 million in 1775
  • Europeans and Africans along with a high birth rate
  • Reasons: religion; economics; political turmoil
  • English, Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch), Scottish, Irish, Dutch, Swedish  OLD IMMIGRANTS
  • Africans forced to America; suffered discrimination and slave labor
slavery
Slavery
  • Indentured servitude
  • Labor shortages lead to importing slaves
  • Cheap labor
  • Dependable work force
  • Stono Rebellion/Cato Rebellion – 1739 in South Carolina
  • New York “Conspiracy” - 1741
  • Slave laws
mercantilism and triangle trade
Mercantilism and Triangle Trade
  • Colonies for the Mother Country
  • Acts of Navigation
    • Trade on English ships
    • Imports pass English ports
    • Exports to England
  • Triangular Trade
    • Middle Passage
dominion of new england 1686 1689
Dominion of New England (1686-1689)
  • Established by King James II to consolidate colonies
  • Administrative union of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey
  • Governor Edmund Andros
  • Dissolution
colonial economics
Colonial Economics
  • Land was “gold”
  • No established monetary system (gold and silver)
  • Transportation
    • Rivers and coasts
    • Horse and carriage led to taverns and postal services
  • New England
    • Limited land led to shipbuilding, fishing, trading
  • Middle Colonies
    • Wheat and corn fields; manufacturing and trade
  • Southern Colonies
    • Tobacco, rice, indigo plantations based on forced labor
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