Native and colonial america
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Native and Colonial America. Unit I AP U.S. History. Bering Sea Land Bridge Migration. Natives. Nomads Agriculturally-based (maize/corn) Hopewells /Mississippian Moundbuilders Iroquois Iroquois Confederacy. Native Map of North America. Europe. Renaissance (rebirth)

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Native and Colonial America

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Native and colonial america

Native and Colonial America

Unit I

AP U.S. History


Bering sea land bridge migration

Bering Sea Land Bridge Migration


Natives

Natives

  • Nomads

  • Agriculturally-based (maize/corn)

  • Hopewells/Mississippian

    • Moundbuilders

  • Iroquois

    • Iroquois Confederacy


Native map of north america

Native Map of North America


Europe

Europe

  • Renaissance (rebirth)

  • Growth of Nation-States (England, France, Spain, Portugal)

  • Protestant Reformation and Religious Wars

    • Lutheranism

    • Calvinism - predestination

    • Church of England aka Anglican Church

    • Catholic Counter-Reformation


European colonization

European Colonization

  • Columbus in 1492 spearheads European intervention into America

  • Relations with natives

    • Spain

      • Encomienda system and asiento system

    • England

    • France


Smallpox

Smallpox


Columbian exchange

Columbian Exchange


Treaty of tordesillas

Treaty of Tordesillas


European colonies

European Colonies


England

England

  • Defeat of Spanish Armada in 1588 makes England a superior naval power

  • Population increases

  • Joint-stock companies develop

  • Religious conflicts divide the nation

  • Weak monarchs, civil wars, and revolutions


English colonies

English Colonies

  • Charters

  • Corporate Colony

    • Granted a charter to stockholders

    • Ex. Virginia

  • Proprietary Colony

    • Granted a charter to individual or group

    • Ex. Maryland, Pennsylvania

  • Royal Colony

    • Under direct control of the monarch

    • Ex. New Hampshire

    • Eventually, 8 of the 13 colonies became royal colonies, including Virginia and Massachusetts


The first english colonies

The First English Colonies

  • First Attempt: Roanoke in 1585

  • First Permanent: Jamestown, Virginia in 1607

    • John Smith – “he that will not work shall not eat”

    • John Rolfe - tobacco


Who is this

Who is this?


Oh yeah pocahontas

Oh yeah…Pocahontas


Disney s john smith

Disney’s John Smith


Hollywood s john smith

Hollywood’s John Smith


This is john smith

This is John Smith.


Pilgrims

Pilgrims

  • Separatists to Holland then head for Virginia

  • Mayflower takes Separatists and others to Jamestown but weather complicates matters

  • Settlers decide to remain and establish Plymouth - 1620


Mayflower compact

Mayflower Compact


The mayflower ii

The Mayflower (II)


Look a big rock

Look, a big rock.


Wampanoag dwelling

Wampanoag Dwelling


Plymouth colony

Plymouth Colony


Pulpit religion

Pulpit/Religion


Thirteen colonies

Thirteen Colonies


New england

New England

  • Massachusetts Bay Colony and Puritans (1630)

    • John Winthrop and “city upon a hill”

  • Providence, Rhode Island, and Roger Williams (1636)

    • “Wall of separation”

  • Portsmouth and Anne Hutchinson (1638)

    • Antinomianism

  • Hartford, New Haven, Connecticut, and Thomas Hooker (1636-1637)

  • New Hampshire (1679)


New england culture

New England Culture

  • Massachusetts under strict Puritanical lifestyle

  • Religious toleration and dissent lead to Rhode Island

  • Halfway Covenant: attempt to increase members

  • Salem Witch Trials (1692-1693)

    • Cotton Mather

    • Spectral evidence

  • Education by mothers

  • Towns with over 50 families required primary schools; 100, grammar schools


New england politics

New England Politics

  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)

    • First written constitution in America

  • New England Confederation (1643-1684)

    • Defense alliance among Plymouth, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Haven

  • King Philip’s (Metacom) War (1675-1676)

    • New England Confederation defeats Wampanoag alliance


Middle colonies

Middle Colonies

  • New Amsterdam transferred to Duke of York in 1664 to become New York

  • Lands taken from New York to establish New Jersey by 1702

  • Develop wheat and corn farms and eventually into manufacturing and trade

  • Delaware created by Pennsylvania (1702)

  • Education by private or churches


Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

  • William Penn establishes Quaker-based colony in Pennsylvania (1681)

  • Religious Society of Friends aka Quakers

  • Holy Experiment

    • Religious refuge

    • Liberal political ideals

    • Economic success

    • Frame of Government and Charter of Liberties


Southern colonies

Southern Colonies

  • Maryland (1634)

  • Virginia (1607)

  • Carolinas (1663)

    • North Carolina (1729)

    • South Carolina (1729)

  • Georgia (1732)

  • Limited education due to agricultural base


Virginia

Virginia

  • House of Burgesses in 1619

    • First legislative assembly in the colonies

  • Becomes royal colony in 1624

  • Bacon’s Rebellion (1676)

    • Inequities between large landowners and western farmers

    • Nathanial Bacon vs. William Berkeley

  • Headright System

    • 50 acres to each paying immigrant or plantation owner who paid for immigrant


Maryland

Maryland

  • Lord Baltimore establishes colony for Catholics

  • Act of Toleration (1649)

    • Toleration of all Christian sects

    • Death to those who denied Jesus

  • Religious civil war brought control to Protestants


Carolinas

Carolinas

  • North Carolina

    • Tobacco plantations

    • Well-established autonomy

  • South Carolina

    • Rice plantations

    • Became heavily dependent on slavery


Georgia

Georgia

  • James Oglethorpe establishes in 1732

    • Social experiment

  • Defensive buffer to Spanish Florida

  • Debtors colony


Colonial religion

Colonial Religion

  • Diverse among colonies regarding strict adherence and religious toleration

  • Domination by Protestants; little influence of Anglican Church; other sects and denominations viewed as bizarre

  • The Great Awakening (1730s-1740s)

    • Over time, economics became prominent over religious conviction

    • Jonathan Edwards and “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”

    • George Whitefield

    • Development of evangelism and individual faith


Colonial religion1

Colonial Religion


Colonial politics

Colonial Politics

  • Limited Self-Government

    • Elected legislative assemblies

    • Governors

  • Voting

    • Limited to adult male educated and/or property owners


Colonial culture society

Colonial Culture/Society

Rural

Urban


Colonial society

Colonial Society

  • American Social Structure

    • Wealthy landowners

    • Merchants

    • Small farmers

    • Craftspeople

  • Opportunity

    • Less dependent on heredity

  • Gender Roles

    • Men

      • Patriarchal society, landowners, workers

    • Women

      • Submissive to men but respected, domestic responsibilities, limited to no political rights


Colonial american culture

Colonial American Culture

  • Becoming American

    • Pragmatism

  • Dominance of English culture

  • Folkways

    • Differed by coast/frontier, New England/Middle/Southern colonies


Colonial culture the arts

Colonial Culture - The Arts

  • Architecture

    • Early colonies centered around a church

    • Urban structures typical of English structures

    • Frontier log cabins

  • Painting

    • Portrait painters and landscapes

  • Literature

    • Religious sermons, political essays, non-fiction books

    • Poor Richard’s Almanac - Benjamin Franklin


Typical colony layout

Typical Colony Layout


Colonial culture education and information

Colonial Culture - Education and Information

  • Learning

    • Prominent in New England colonies

    • Education limited to wealthy males; females learned domestic chores

  • Newspapers

    • Limited content on weekly basis

    • John Peter Zenger case (1735)


Immigration

Immigration

  • 250,000 in 1701 to 2.5 million in 1775

  • Europeans and Africans along with a high birth rate

  • Reasons: religion; economics; political turmoil

  • English, Germans (Pennsylvania Dutch), Scottish, Irish, Dutch, Swedish  OLD IMMIGRANTS

  • Africans forced to America; suffered discrimination and slave labor


Slavery

Slavery

  • Indentured servitude

  • Labor shortages lead to importing slaves

  • Cheap labor

  • Dependable work force

  • Stono Rebellion/Cato Rebellion – 1739 in South Carolina

  • New York “Conspiracy” - 1741

  • Slave laws


Slave demographics

Slave Demographics


Mercantilism and triangle trade

Mercantilism and Triangle Trade

  • Colonies for the Mother Country

  • Acts of Navigation

    • Trade on English ships

    • Imports pass English ports

    • Exports to England

  • Triangular Trade

    • Middle Passage


Dominion of new england 1686 1689

Dominion of New England (1686-1689)

  • Established by King James II to consolidate colonies

  • Administrative union of Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey

  • Governor Edmund Andros

  • Dissolution


Colonial economics

Colonial Economics

  • Land was “gold”

  • No established monetary system (gold and silver)

  • Transportation

    • Rivers and coasts

    • Horse and carriage led to taverns and postal services

  • New England

    • Limited land led to shipbuilding, fishing, trading

  • Middle Colonies

    • Wheat and corn fields; manufacturing and trade

  • Southern Colonies

    • Tobacco, rice, indigo plantations based on forced labor


Native and colonial america

() - Becomes an English colony


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