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THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. CHAPTER 4 (112-141). THE SHOT HEARD ROUND THE WORLD. After the First Continental Congress, the King declared them rebels and prepared for war Parliament echoed the feeling, sending more troops to America

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THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

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The american revolution

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

CHAPTER 4 (112-141)


The shot heard round the world

THE SHOT HEARD ROUND THE WORLD

After the First Continental Congress, the King declared them rebels and prepared for war

Parliament echoed the feeling, sending more troops to America

Meanwhile, Massachusetts began training “Minute Men” and other soldiers and created their own government

John Hancock and Sam Adams were the leaders of the new assembly


The shot heard round the world1

THE SHOT HEARD ROUND THE WORLD

General Gage dispatched 700 troops to Concord where the rebels had been accumulating arms

Paul Revere and others rode off to warn that the British were coming

About 70 Minute Men assembled on the Green at Lexington, where the first battle took place – it was a rout and the Americans lost about 8 dead – the British went on to capture the stores at Concord – it was during the march home that the colonials killed about 273 British to their 100 in losses


The second continental congress

THE SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS

May 10, 1775 – John Adams, Sam Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Christopher Gadsden, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington (dressed in his colonel’s uniform), John Hancock, and others met to decide their fate

Washington was given command of the newly created Continental Army, and the congress turned to the business of putting it together


Bunker hill

BUNKER HILL

Meanwhile, the Battle of Bunker Hill took place – the British drove the Americans off the heights surrounding Boston, suffering heavy losses

This battle pretty much ended any chance of a peaceful reconciliation – they were now fully engaged in open rebellion

The Olive Branch Petition – one final plea sent to the king was not accepted


The great declaration

THE GREAT DECLARATION

Independence was not a sure thing – many problems and questions existed:

1. These people were now traitors

2. There was an element of mob resistance that had an ugly side

3.They had to answer the question whether common people could actually govern themselves

4. Yet mistrust of Parliament and the king grew daily


The great declaration1

THE GREAT DECLARATION

Two events pushed the colonies toward that break:

1. Hessian Mercenaries – known for looting and raping, the colonists assumed they would run amok and could not believe the callousness of the British for hiring them

2.Common Sense was published – written by Thomas Paine, this tract attacked the whole idea of monarchy itself stating “A government of our own is our natural right” – 150,000 copies sold between January and July 1776


The great declaration2

THE GREAT DECLARATION

Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution, June 7, 1776:

RESOLVED: That these United Colonies as, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.

It finally passed on July 2, 1776


The great declaration3

THE GREAT DECLARATION

The Declaration of Independence

A committee was formed with Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, and Robert Livingston

Jefferson wrote the draft and with few modifications it became the famous Declaration of Independence adopted on July 4, 1776

It consisted of two parts – a general justification of rights, and a list of complaints against the king and Parliament


The great declaration4

THE GREAT DECLARATION

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness—That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed—That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government…” VIDEO


1776 the balance of forces

1776: THE BALANCE OF FORCES

Congress had to build an army, new political institutions, and political traditions

Colonists owned most of the property in America thus the British would have to supply from Europe

At the same time, the new Continental Army was poorly trained and poorly equipped

9 million British to 2.5 million Americans


Loyalists

LOYALISTS

John Adams estimated that 1/3 of the colonists were Patriots, 1/3 were Loyalists, and 1/3 were neutral

Historians estimate the numbers at 2/5 were Patriots, 1/5 Loyalists, and 2/5 neutral

Loyalists came from all walks of life, but many of them held royal appointments, were Anglican clergy, or merchants with close ties to Britain

Loyalists were often set upon by the Patriots and beaten, tarred and feathers, imprisoned, and had their property confiscated

Battles between Loyalist and Patriot forces were often very bloody


The british take new york city

THE BRITISH TAKE NEW YORK CITY

August, 1776 – Howe captures New York fairly easily – Washington’s army is not up to the task

Howe hesitated on several occasions allowing Washington and the army to escape to New Jersey – at one point Washington threatened to shoot any cowardly soldiers

In November and December they retreated to Pennsylvania and Howe went to winter quarters – Washington crossed the Delaware and attacked Trenton on Christmas night and took it, claiming Princeton a few days later from General Cornwallis


Saratoga and the french alliance

SARATOGA AND THE FRENCH ALLIANCE

In the Spring of 1777, Washington had fewer than 5000 troops

Meanwhile, the British had big plans underway:

Burgoyne was to lead an army from Canada down toward Albany

Leger moved from Lake Ontario toward Albany

Howe was to move his army up the Hudson river to trap Washington

All of these plans were wasted as the generals were slow to move out, and became bogged down in the forests – hampered by Patriot militia the whole way


Saratoga and the french alliance1

SARATOGA AND THE FRENCH ALLIANCE

Leger was driven back by Benedict Arnold

Burgoyne was slowed by excessive baggage and Patriot militia

Howe tried to get Washington to expose his army then went by sea to take Philadelphia, deviating from the plans

Ultimately, Burgoyne was forced to surrender at Saratoga – Clinton had turned back to New York for reinforcements - 5700 British troops were taken to Virginia


Saratoga and the french alliance2

SARATOGA AND THE FRENCH ALLIANCE

The victory at Saratoga finally convinced the French to officially recognize the Americans – they had been supplying money and weapons already – Ben Franklin brokered the formal alliance

At the same time, after Saratoga and knowing that a French-American alliance was inevitable, the Britishwere willing to negotiate – willing to repeal the Coercive Acts, and the Tea Act, and to never tax the colonies again – unfortunately Parliament waited too long and word did not reach the Americans until after they had ratified the French treaty – then war broke out between Britain and France


Saratoga and the french alliance3

SARATOGA AND THE FRENCH ALLIANCE

Meanwhile Philadelphia had been lost

Washington settled for the winter at Valley Forge, where they ran out of supplies – lacking proper clothing and food, and many died or deserted

Congress was also considering replacing Washington as Commander-in-Chief with Gates, and indifferent and uninspiring leader

Eventually, the survivors became a tough, disciplined fighting force


The war moves south

THE WAR MOVES SOUTH

Fighting in the northern states degenerated into skirmishes and small-unit clashes

Meanwhile, making use of superior sea power and the heavier Tory population in the South and the possibility of enlisting slaves, the British moved to South Carolina and Georgia

By 1780, General Clinton had captured Savannah and Charleston along with much of Georgia and South Carolina


The war moves south1

THE WAR MOVES SOUTH

Poor treatment by British troops pushed many into the Patriot’s side, causing large numbers of guerilla bands to form, led by men such as Francis Marion (whom the movie the Patriot was based upon) and Thomas Sumter (whom the famous Fort Sumter was named for)

Nathaniel Green was given command of the southern American army and forced Cornwallis back into North Carolina


Victory at yorktown

VICTORY AT YORKTOWN

Cornwallis was ordered to establish a base at Yorktown, Virginia

Meanwhile, French fleets won control of the Chesapeake and cut Cornwallis off from support

Desiring to attack New York, Washington was convinced to attack Yorktown by the French General Rochambeau – when they all joined up, he had 17,000 troops at his disposal – Cornwallis surrendered more than 7,000 troops


Negotiating a favorable peace

NEGOTIATING A FAVORABLE PEACE

After the defeat at Yorktown the British were finished fighting and began negotiating for peace

The process was difficult in part because the US had pledged with France not to make a separate peace and France was seeking a high reward

John Adams, Ben Franklin, John Jay, Thomas Jefferson, and Henry Laurens were appointed to the peace committee in Paris


Negotiating a favorable peace1

NEGOTIATING A FAVORABLE PEACE

Franklin enjoyed himself in France, being already very famous, and took a long view of the peace process, desiring reconciliation with Britain over obtaining the harshest concessions possible

Eventually they did create a separate peace with Britain:Official recognition by the British government, settled borders, agreements regarding fishing off the Grand Banks, and agreed not to impede the collection of British debts – the French were shocked


National governmnet under the articles of confederation

NATIONAL GOVERNMNET UNDER THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

The Articles of Confederation were submitted to the stated for ratification in 1777 but were not fully ratified until 1781 (Maryland was last)

The Articles legitimized the Continental Congress

Each state had one vote

The union was a “league of friendship”

Each state retained complete autonomy

The result was a central government too weak to collect taxes or enforce what little power it did have


Financning the war

FINANCNING THE WAR

While each state did not always give what was requested, they did pitch in about 5.8 million and food, fodder, and military supplies

Bonds worth about 7-8 million were sold to the public

Foreign governments made loans of about 8 million, mostly from France

About 440 million in paper money was printed

Robert Morris had the National Bank of North America chartered and essentially kept the US from going broke


State republican governments

STATE REPUBLICAN GOVERNMENTS

Most colonies drafted new constitutions during the war – by 1877 all but Connecticut and Rhode Island

Most of the governments were similar, consisting of legislatures, executives and judicial branches

Power of individuals was limited

“every man for himself, but also everyone for the nation”

Most contained bills of rights

Virtual representation was rejected, direct representation was implemented


Social reform

SOCIAL REFORM

Legislative seats were reapportioned

Primogeniture, entail and quitrents were abolished

More religious freedoms were given

Slavery was done away with in the North (often gradually) and restrictions against freeing slaves were done away with in the south – 10,000 slaves were freed between 1782 and 1790 in Virginia

Governments were more responsive to public opinion than ever – no single class rose to the top or sunk to the bottom in the Revolution


Effects of the revolution on women

EFFECTS OF THE REVOLUTION ON WOMEN

The small trend toward granting women more rights continued and even sped up

During the war, many women became involved in the management of businesses

Attitudes toward education for women began to change – schools for girls were founded and female literacy began to rise

All this talk of slavery and oppression, liberty and equality, began to open more doors for women


Growth of a national spirit

GROWTH OF A NATIONAL SPIRIT

As early as the 1750’s “American” had come to be a common term in the colonies – things and people were becoming identified as such

As British laws forced the colonists together for their mutual defense, a new national spirit began to grow

During the war, colonies worked together, soldiers traveled and fought in different colonies, blurring the lines between them – members of Congress had to travel through the various colonies

The need to centralize such things as a postal service and diplomatic services forced them to consider themselves as one nation


The great land ordinances

THE GREAT LAND ORDINANCES

Land Ordinance of 1785

Western lands were to be surveyed and divided into 6-mile square townships, some further divided into 36 sections of 640 acres – the 16th section of every town was set aside for the maintenance of schools – all of this provided for an orderly development of the West


The great land ordinances1

THE GREAT LAND ORDINANCES

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Submitted by Thomas Jefferson, this law set out the process by which new territories could become states:

Until there were 5000 adult males, the areas would be controlled by a governor and 3 judges appointed by Congress – after 5000 they could elect a legislature, and after 60000 they could become a state – provided they would be a “republican” government and prohibit slavery


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