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Faculty of allied medical sciences. Environmental Health (NREH-101). Pollution. SUPERVISION Prof. Dr. Mervat Salah. Outcomes :. 1-To know the meaning and classification of pollution 2-To understand biological pollution 3-To know water related diseases

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Faculty of allied medical sciences

Faculty of allied medical sciences

Environmental Health

(NREH-101)


Pollution
Pollution

SUPERVISION

Prof. Dr. MervatSalah


Outcomes

Outcomes:

1-To know the meaning and classification of pollution

2-To understand biological pollution

3-To know water related diseases

4-To study control and prevention of pollution


Pollution

Definition

Any undesirable change in physical , chemical or biological characteristics of air , land , water

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.


Pollution can be classified according to source:-

Water Pollution

Air Pollution

Soil Pollution

Solid Waste (domestic waste- medical waste- industrial waste- construction waste- Agricultural waste )

Pollution is divided into global pollution and local pollution .


Water pollution
Water pollution

  • Water resources

  • Surface water (rivers)

  • Ground water (wells)

  • Rain water

    Polluted water & contaminated water:

    Polluted water: water contain physical and chemical pollutants

    Contaminated water: water contain biological pollutants


Sources of water pollution

Point and Non-point Source pollution

Point Sources

include sewers, industrial discharges, street drains combined sewer outfalls

Non-point Sources

include agricultural runoff, road runoff, landfill drainage, erosion & sedimentation processes, dead aquatic life and boats& ships


  • Types of Water Pollution

  • Physical:temp, pH, color, turbidity, taste &odor

  • Chemical:

    Inorganic: Ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulphate,

    phosphate, hardness, chloride, solids, fluoride, heavy metals

    Organics: pesticide, phenol, oil & grease , biodegradable organic matter and non-biodegradable matter .

    Biological:

    Bactria, virus, parasites, protozoa


Physical pollution
Physical pollution

  • To identify any problem; it must follow 3 steps:

    Sources – Effect – control measures

  • Temp

    S: cooling water, power station waste discharge

    E: Raising water temp and affect on aquatic life in the stream and uses of stream

    C: Apply waste minimization rule (4 R) and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams


pH, turbidity, color, taste & odor

S : natural source (aquatic life, erosion , runoff water) and man-made source( industrial waste, sewage)

E : affecting on quality of water and its uses as recreational area (bathing) and navigation, affecting on aquatic life living in the stream, and on uses of water in industrial purposes (corrosion problem)

C: Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams


Chemical pollution
chemical pollution

  • Hardness(calcium and magnesium salt), chloride, Sulphate

  • S: desalting units discharge, industrial waste

  • E: increase dissolved salt content affecting on water uses as drinking water, domestic uses or industrial uses and needs to softening process.

  • C: Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams.


Amonia,Nitrates

  • S: fertilizer industrial waste, agricultural run off

  • E: in drinking water , it causes blue babies for infants less than 2 years

  • In surface water: cause eutrification problem (over growth of algae forming algae bloom) affecting on water treatment plant and uses of water in industrial purposes

  • C : Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams

  • Phosphate: as mentioned before except blue babies


fluoride

  • S : natural sources

  • E : if water contain more than ≥ 1.5 ppm causes dental fluorosis تسمم الاسنان بالفلواريد . If ≤0.5 ppm causes dental caries تسوس الأسنان

  • C: follow up and monitoring of fluoride concentration in water supply and adjust it


  • Heavy metals

  • (lead, mercury, arsenic, copper, iron & manganese

  • S: industrial waste

  • E: Toxicity effect on aquatic life as lead, mercury, arsenic poising. While iron & manganese from ground water cause rusty taste and red color in water

  • C:: Apply waste minimization rule (4R: reduction; recycle ; reuse; recovery) before discharge, and environmental laws that control discharge of wastewater on receiving streams


Biological pollution
Biological pollution

  • Bacteria

  • Protozoa

  • Parasites

  • Virus


Bacteria

  • Campylobacter

  • Cholera

  • E. Coli

  • Typhoid

  • Salmonella

    • Coliform bacteria , Streptococcus, Enterococcus that are used as indicator for contamination with pathogenic microorganism


  • Protozoa

  • Amoeba----ambiosis------sewage or untreated water

  • Giardialamblia----Giardiasis---- poor disinection, crossconection due to pipeline break

  • Cryptosporidia----cryptosporidiosis---poor disinfection

  • Parasite

  • Ascarias is an infection of the small intestine caused by water contaminated with eggs Ascarias


  • Viruse

  • Enteritis, diarrhea, and dysentery

    • Rotavirus

  • Paralysis

    • Polio

    • Liver damage

      Two of the viruses that cause hepatitis (hepatitis A and E) can be transmitted through contaminated water and food;


Diseases related to water
Diseases Related to Water

Water-borne Diseases

Water-based Diseases

Water-washed Diseases

Water-related Diseases


Quiz 1
Quiz 1

  • Complete the following:

  • Pollution can be classified into: ----,-----,----,-----,--------

  • Global environmental problems are---,-----,------

  • Types of water pollution are:-----,------,-------

  • Any Environmental problem can be solved through ---------, --------,----------

  • Sources of water pollution and its impacts------,-------

  • Physical pollution as-----,----,-----, -------

  • Effect of temp. on receiving stream-------,------

  • Effect of turbidity on receiving stream-------,------

  • Effect of pH on receiving stream-------,------

  • Effect of color on receiving stream-------,------

  • Effect of odor on receiving stream-------,------


Recommended text book
Recommended text book

  • Basic Environmental Health


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