The Mongols. I. Background. The Mongols were nomads from the eastern Asian steppe (fields). They lived in clans (family groups). II. Unification. In 1206, a clan leader named Temujin unified the Mongols He took the title Genghis Khan , or “universal ruler.”. DON’T WRITE THIS!.
1. Mock retreats tricked the enemy
2. Flag signals
3. Terrified enemies into surrender
If a city refused to open its gates to him, he might kill the entire population upon capture
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Mongol armies used a system of signal flags during battle. The black and white flags sent orders to Mongol units who moved swiftly while overwhelming their disorganized opponents. At night, lanterns and flaming arrows were used in place of flags.
Mongol soldiers often died of infection from battle wounds caused, in part, to poor hygiene. Mongol warriors rarely washed. When they did, they used urine from their horses. Their clothing was often worn until it literally rotted off.
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By 1260, the Mongols had divided their huge empire into four regions, or khanates.
A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.
B. While ferocious warriors, the Mongols were tolerant rulers.
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The walls were covered with gold and silver and the Dining Hall was so large that it could easily dine 6,000 people. The palace was made of cane supported by 200 silk cords, which could be taken to pieces and transported easily when the Emperor moved. There too, the Khan kept a stud of 10,000 white horses, whose milk was reserved for his family and for a tribe which had won a victory for Genghis Khan.
D. Marco Polo, an Italian merchant, traveled to the Yuan Dynasty, stayed for 17 years and interested Europeans to trade more with Asia.
Textbook – page 309
From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003