Isotopes
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Isotopes. Atomic Number. Atomic number = number of protons Which makes it always a whole number Atomic number is always the same for a given element Can be found on the periodic table. Isotope. Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons They have different mass numbers

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Isotopes

Isotopes


Atomic number

Atomic Number

  • Atomic number = number of protons

    • Which makes it always a whole number

  • Atomic number is always the same for a given element

  • Can be found on the periodic table


Isotope

Isotope

  • Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons

  • They have different mass numbers

  • They have the same number of protons

  • Nuclide

    • General name for an isotope of an

      atom


Mass number

Mass Number

  • Atoms of the same element may have different numbers of neutrons

  • Mass number

    • Sum of protons + neutrons

  • Mass number can not be found on the periodic table

    • Not found by rounding atomic mass

    • Given through words or symbols


Atomic mass

Atomic Mass

  • Weighted average of the masses of naturally occurring isotopes of an element

  • Can be found on the periodic table

  • It is not usually a whole number


Calculating average atomic mass

Calculating Average Atomic Mass

  • Depends on both mass and relative abundance

  • How do you find average atomic mass?

    • Naturally occuring copper consists of 69.15% copper-63 which has an atomic mass of 62.929601 amu and 30.85% copper-65 which has an atomic mass of 64.927794

    • Multiply the atomic mass of each isotope by its relative abundance(expressed as a decimal) and add the results

    • 0.6915 x 62.929601 amu + 0.3085 x 64.927794 amu = 63.55 amu


Calculating average atomic mass1

Calculating average atomic mass

  • Three isotopes of Argon occur in nature. Calculate the average atomic mass of Argon to decimal places:

    Argon-36 (35.97 amu; 0.337%)

    Argon-38 (37.96 amu; 0.063%)

    Argon-40 (39.96 amu; 99.600%)

    Answer: 39.95 amu


Isotopes of hydrogen

Isotopes of Hydrogen

  • Protium

  • Deuterium

  • Tridium


Isotopes of hydrogen1

Isotopes of Hydrogen

faculty.weber.edu/bdattilo/shknbk/notes/time.htm


Isotopes1

Isotopes

  • Hydrogen isotopes are different because most isotopes do not have their own specific name

  • They are identified by their mass number


Illustrating isotopes nuclides

C

12

6

Illustrating isotopes/nuclides

Nuclear Notation:

Hyphen Notation:

C-12


Isotope stability

Isotope Stability

  • Stable nucleus

    • a correct ratio of neutrons and protons should be present in the nucleus.

  • Unstable nucleus

    • radioactive

  • Elements 83-112  radioactive

  • Elements 93-112  man-made


Problems determine the of p n and e in each of these

1. Sodium-23

2. calcium-40

3. Cu

4. Ag

64

Problems – determine the # of p+, n, and e- in each of these.

1. 11 p+, 11 e-, 12 n

2. 20 p+, 20 e-, 20 n

3. 29 p+, 29 e-, 35 n

4. 47 p+, 47 e-, 61 n

29

108

47


Problems write the nuclear notation and hyphen notation for

Problems – write the nuclear notation and hyphen notation for

  • 5. mass number 28, atomic number 14

  • 6. 26 protons and 30 neutrons

  • 7. 56 electrons and 82 neutrons


Answers

Answers

  • 5. 14Sisilicon-28

  • 6. 26Fe iron-56

  • 7. 56Ba barium-138

28

56

138


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