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Communication Problems. According to the article, what help ed to solve the problems with relationships between Martians and Venusians?. Work in groups to answer the following questions.

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According to the article, what helped to solve the problems with relationships between Martians and Venusians?

Work in groups to answer the following questions.

Both Martians and Venusians were able to solve such relationship-linked problems because they could recognize that they were different. One of the secrets of their success was good communication. According to the article, they could communicate well because, interestingly, they spoke different languages.

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Do you agree that men and women seldom mean the same things even when they use the same words? Are there any examples in the article that may support your point of view?

Yes, I agree. Male speakers are more direct, and female speakers are more indirect or tactful. For instance, when a woman says, “I feel like you never listen.” she does not expect the word “never” to be taken literally. Using the word “never” is just a way of expressing the frustration she is feeling at the moment. It is not to be taken as if it were factual information.

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Communication Between Martians and Venusians (Para. 1—3)

The author here skillfully applies analogue (类比)into the communication problem between men and women.

1) When they had problems,they would just go to a translator

for assistance.

2) When there was a conflict they didn’t start judging or

fighting but insteadpulled out their phrase dictionaries to

understand each other more fully.

Communication Between Men and Women (Para. 4—9)

For example, if a woman says, “I feel like you never listen”, “never” is just a way of expressing the frustration she is feeling at the moment.

1. One of the secrets of success in dealing with relationship is

the good communication between Martians and Venusians.

(Para. 1)

2. How did they communicate well though they spoke different

languages? (Para. 2)

3. People from Mars and people from Venus experienced a

trust and acceptance that we rarely experience today. (Para.3)

1. Men and women seldom mean the same things even when

they use the same words. ( Para. 4)

2. Ten common complaints that are easily misinterpreted.

(Para. 5—9)

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值得注意的是当两个从句并列时,后一个从句的引导词往往不可省略,以显示句子间的关系。此句中的that 就是这一用法。

  • So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. (Line 14)

此句中,assume 后跟了两个宾语从句,一句为it was just one of those expected misunderstandings, 另一句为that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other。

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因此,当交流出现问题的时候,他们认为误解是必然的,这只是众多误解中的一个。同时,在些许帮助下,他们必定能够彼此理解。因此,当交流出现问题的时候,他们认为误解是必然的,这只是众多误解中的一个。同时,在些许帮助下,他们必定能够彼此理解。

  • So when communication problems emerged, they assumed it was just one of those expected misunderstandings and that with a little assistance they would surely understand each other. (Line 14)
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It is not to be taken as if it were factual information. (Line 22)

as if所引导的从句的谓语动词多用虚拟语气,表示所叙述的情况与事实相反。

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具体用法如下:

  • 谈论现在情形,动词用过去时。

a) Why is she looking at me as if she knew me?

她为什么那样看我?像是认识我似的。

b) He behaves as if he owned the house.

他表现出来的样子好像这个房子是属于他的。

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谈论过去情形的动词形式有以下几种:

1) 过去时,表示过去的状态,如:

  • He stood there looking at me and laughing, as ifto fool me was the best joke in the world.

他站在那里,望着我哈哈大笑,好像愚弄我是天底下最开心的事儿似的。

  • Mr. Coleman always talked as if he knew everything.

科尔曼先生说话时总是一副无所不知的样子。

  • 但是,如果状态动词带有持续时间状语, 则用过去完成时:

They talked as if they had been friends for years.

他们说话的样子仿佛是多年的朋友。

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过去完成时,表示过去的动作先于主句动词而发生或完成,如:过去完成时,表示过去的动作先于主句动词而发生或完成,如:

a) It was as if he had lost his last friend.

他好像再没有朋友了。

  • “I remember,” she tells her children now, “how wild her white hair looked—as if it had been electrified.”

她现在给她的孩子们说:“我还记得她那白色的头发有多么凌乱——好像过了电似的。”

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必须注意的是,在指过去的动作时,即使主句是 必须注意的是,在指过去的动作时,即使主句是

  • 现在时,as if从句中的动词也要用过去完成时。

a) She looks as if she had seen a ghost.

她好像是见了鬼似的。

  • He talks about Rome as if he had been there himself.

他讲起罗马的情况来就好像他去过那里似的。

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He walks as if he is drunk.

He walks as if he were drunk.

  • 如果as if后面的从句所表示的情况是真实的或很

可能是真实的,则动词可以用陈述语气,在 feel,

look,seem, smell, sound, taste之后尤其如此。

第一句表示“他已经醉了”,第二句则表示“他没有醉”。

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It is not to be taken as if it were factual information. (Line 22)

不要把它当作真实的意思来理解。

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A man’s literal translation of “I don’t feel heard” leads him to take the woman’s complaint lightly. (Line 47)

take sth. lightly/seriously

把······不当回事/认真对待······

slide16

联合国敦促各金融机构更加认真对待水资源短缺问题。联合国敦促各金融机构更加认真对待水资源短缺问题。

UN urges financial institutions to take water scarcity more seriously.

当今时代,世界上还有一半人口遭受着饥荒, 健康状况不良以及生活质量低下,我们决不能再轻视人口问题。

At a time when half of the world is suffering from starvation, poor health and a deplorably low standard of living we simply cannot take lightly the population problem.

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男人从字面上去理解“没人听我讲话”,这使他对女人的抱怨不当回事。男人从字面上去理解“没人听我讲话”,这使他对女人的抱怨不当回事。

  • A man’s literal translation of “I don’t feel heard” leads him to take the woman’s complaint lightly. (Line 47)
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1.encounter( Line 1, Para. 1)

vt. find oneself faced by (danger, difficulties, etc.), meet

(an enemy or enemies); meet unexpectedly (a friend, etc.)

遭遇(危险,困难);遭逢(敌人);邂逅(友人)

情景造句:Describe your process of pursuing success.

Encountering difficulties in the process of pursuing success is quite normal.

在追求成功的过程中遇到困难是很正常的事情。

That Muslim ______________________________________ on his way to Mecca to make a pilgrimage.

was encountered with an old friend from China

在前往麦加朝圣的路上,那位穆斯林意外地遇到了一位来自中国的老友。

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n. sudden or unexpected (esp. hostile) meeting (with)

遭遇(尤指与敌人,与介词with连用)

An encounter with a branch of Al-Qaeda

___________________________________ resulted in a serious injury in the American soldier’s left arm.

与基地组织一分支遭遇致使那位美军士兵左臂受重伤。

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2.assistance(Line 6, Para. 2)

n. help; aid 帮助;援助

我可以帮你什么忙吗?

Can I be of any assistance to you?

Chinese government is prepared to ___________________ to that quake-stricken African country. (提供经济援助)

give financial assistance

is of great assistance for

The identity of world champion _____________________

Liu Guoliang to become one of the youngest head coaches

of Chinese national table tennis team. (有着很大的帮助)

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动词形式:assist

= help(正式用语)帮助;援助

他乐意帮助那些单亲家庭的孩子重返校园。

He is willing to assist those children from the single-parent families to go back to school.

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aid, assistance与help

  • aid 多指因处于困境或危难之时需要别人的帮助或援救。

e.g. 他愿意去帮助那些不幸的人。

He is willing to go to the aid of those ill-fated people.

  • assistance主要指在共同工作中对所属的部分工作做出

贡献。assistance 不一定都是在紧迫的情况下提供帮助。

  • help 的用法最为普遍,assistance 最为正式,aid 次之。

help 往往是出于同情而提供帮助。

e.g. 他已经给了我们很多的帮助。

He has already given us a lot of help.

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3.conflict(Line 8, Para. 2)

n. 1) fight; struggle; quarrel 战争;斗争;争执

This is a serious dispute, and could lead to armed conflict.

这是一场严重的争执,有可能导致武装冲突。

There is a growing conflict of interest between her position as a politician and her business activities.

她从政者的身份和她的商务活动之间的利益冲突日益严重。

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2) (of opinion, desires, etc.) opposition; difference

(指意见,欲望等)相左;冲突;抵触

vi. be in opposition or disagreement

相反,抵触,冲突

他的陈述明显与其他证据相抵触。

His statement was apparently in conflictwith other evidence.

他们对于那起车祸原因的报告与我们的报告出入很大。

Their account of the road accident conflictswith ours.

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4.pull out(Line 8, Para.2)

1) take something out of a bag, pocket, or cupboard 拿出

pulled out all

That disarming young man ______________

____________________ to show to the two

strangers in the same carriage. (Adapted from

Feng Xiaogang’s 2005 new year movie A

World Without Thieves)

his money from his bag

那个毫无戒心的年轻人从包里拿出自己所有的钱给同车厢的两个陌生人看。(编自冯小刚2005年贺岁片《天下无贼》)

slide26

2) use force to take something from where it is

fixed or held 拔出,拉出

情景造句:拔牙

You’d better have that bad tooth pulled out tomorrow.

情景造句:拔掉瓶子的盖子

Pulling outthe lid of that bottle needs great strength.

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5.emerge(Line 14, Para. 3)

vi. 1) come into view; appear

出现;现出(与from连用)

2) (of facts, ideas) appear; become known

(指事实,意见)暴露;显出;出现

太阳从云后出现。

The sun emerged from behind the clouds.

他才是杀人凶手的事实在审问(interrogation)中被暴露出来。

That fact that he was just the murderer emerged from theinterrogation.

讨论中没有出现新的想法。

No new ideas emerged during the discussion.

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appear与emerge

  • 这两个词都是不及物动词。均可指人或事物的出

现或显露,也可以指抽象概念,如思想观念的暴

露,事实或问题的揭露等等。

  • emerge 后常接介词from。有时表示经过调查、询

问之后才使事实、思想或问题暴露出来;

appear 在作系动词时,与seem用法相似,表示“看

起来”、“显得”等意思,其后可接不定式、形容词

或介词短语。

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That man _______ to be your partner but I’m investigating if he really is.

  • Eventually the truth of the matter ________.
  • A smile ________ on his face.
  • Quite a few successful businessmen _________ from poor families.

请选择appear 或 emerge 的适当形式填空。

appears

emerged

appeared

emerged

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6.assume(Line 14, Para. 3)

vt. 1) believe something is true without definite proof

假定, 假设, 臆想

American national basketball team is not as unconquerable as you assumed it to be.

美国国家篮球队并不像你想象的那样不可战胜。

我们先假定他的说法是可信的。

Let us first assume his statement to be believable.

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2) take up; undertake 担任;承担

名词形式:assumption

assumes a leading position

Her father ______________________ in that state-owned enterprise.(担任领导职务)

You should ________________________ of what you have done.(承担所有的责任)

assume all the responsibilities

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assume,guess,imagine与suppose

  • 这几个词都表示对客观情况在未证实以前就做出主观的推

断或提出自己的看法与设想。

  • suppose (vt.)表示“想”、“认为”时,可以接从句或者复合宾

语(补足语多为 to be, 其他情况多用不定式的完成时或进

行时)。

1) I suppose (that) we’ll meet him at that hotel.

我想我们将在那家酒店见他。

2) Few people supposed that young man (to be) innocent.

没多少人认为那个年轻人是清白的。

3) His brother was supposed to have already left for England.

大家以为他的弟弟已经动身去了英格兰。

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suppose 的设想还有某些根据,而 guess (vt./vi.)则有随意

性,只是随便的猜测,其后也可接从句。如果guess后接

answer, riddle, thought等词,可作“猜着了”理解。

1)Can you guess my age? 你能猜出我的年龄吗?

2) Guess what I am doing. 猜猜我在做什么。

3) The little girl guessed the right answer immediately.

那个小女孩儿立刻猜着了正确答案。

  • imagine (vt.)是指思想中形成的图景,想象或猜想某事物

可能发生或存在,往往没有什么根据和把握。其后的宾语

除名词和代词外,还可接动名词、复合宾语和从句。

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1)Can you imagine her becoming a famous hostess of CCTV?

你能想象她成了中央电视台的著名主持人吗?

2) You cannot imagine how happy I was to know that my

daughter was still alive. 你无法想象当我得知女儿还活

着的时候有多么高兴。

  • assume (vt.)的“假设”往往强调以某种设想或条件(并未

证明)作根据进行推论,用法较正式。其后可接复合宾

语和that从句。

e.g. She assumes that you always get up at the same time.

她想你总是在同一个时间起床。

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I failed to ________ her thought.

  • They are _________ to arrive on the six o’clock

passenger train from London.

  • He said he could _________ the scene clearly in his mind.
  • That young man _________ the girl to be a warm-hearted

traveler, but she was in fact a thief.

  • It might be safely _________ that there are nocreatures on

the moon.

请选择 assume, guess, imagine 或 suppose 的适当形式填空。

guess

supposed

imagine

supposed

assumed

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7. exaggerate(Line 23, Para. 5)

v. say something is better, worse or more important

than it really is 夸大,夸张

The significance of that commercial performance ___________________________.

has been obviously exaggerated

那场商业演出的意义被明显夸大了。

The deadly earthquake and tsunami breaking out in Southeast Asia in December 2004 was so serious that the final death toll _______________________ at first.

sounded a bit exaggerating

2004年12月发生在东南亚地区的地震和海啸非常严重,以致于死难者总人数乍听起来都略显夸张。

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8.ignore(Line 32, Para. 5)

vt. take no notice of, refuse to pay attention to

不顾,不理,忽视

情景造句:水资源短缺问题

People all over the world should not ignore severe water shortage problems.

情景造句:她不理睬我

I said hello to her, but she ignored me completely.

情景造句:驾驶员 闯红灯

A good driver never ignores a red light.

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9.convey(Line 42, Para. 6)

v. 1) communicate information or a message

表达,传递

我将不得不把那个坏消息告诉他。

I will have to convey that bad news to him.

当地政府领导向那位牺牲的消防员的家属表示了最深切的慰问。

conveyed their

The leaders of the local government _____________

_______________ to the relatives of that sacrificial

fireman.

deepest sympathy

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2) transport or carry 运送,载送,输送

Those trucks had secretly conveyed weapons to the local anti-US forces.

那些卡车已经把武器秘密地运给了当地的反美武装部队。

公共汽车把旅客从城里运送到了机场。

A bus conveyed the passengers from the city to the airport.

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10.on the verge of(Line 53, Para. 9)

very close to, on the border of

接近于,濒于

on the verge

Her husband’s death almost pushed her ___________

___________________.

of emotional collapse

(精神崩溃的边缘)

Zhao Benshan’s humorous performance even made his serious-looking father _____________________.

on the verge of laughing

(差点儿笑出来)

Famous singer Kris Phillips is _________________. (年近50了)

on the verge of fifty

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找人帮忙

言语是传递信息的一种方式。

没人关心我。

没把他的话当回事

他俩就要吵起来了。

go to sb. for assistance / help

Speech is a means of conveying information.

I don’t feel heard.

to take his words lightly

They are on the verge of arguing.

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