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Care of the Muslim Patient. Rebecca Minor, Aida Mansoor, Ann Minor November 19, 2013 The Connecticut Charter Oak Chapter of HPNA Hospice & Palliative Nurses Association. Rebecca Minor. Special Education teacher in Farmington Born in Bristol UConn RA Converted to Islam 5 years ago MCCT

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Care of the muslim patient

Care of the Muslim Patient

Rebecca Minor, Aida Mansoor, Ann Minor

November 19, 2013

The Connecticut Charter Oak Chapter of HPNA

Hospice & Palliative Nurses Association




62% of Americans

have never met a Muslim


There are
There are…

  • 1.7 billion Muslims on earth – this is 1 out of every 4 people.

    • Approximately 7 million Muslims in the U.S.

    • 100,000 Muslims in the state of CT.

      The chances of caring for a Muslim in the hospital are increasing.



The holy quran
The Holy Quran

The word of God revealed through the angel Gabriel to the prophet Muhamad (pbuh). It was revealed over a period of 23 years.

Today,1400 years later, it remains unchanged, still in its original Arabic language.

  • The word of God revealed through the angel Gabriel to the prophet Muhamad (pbuh).

  • Today,1400 years later, it remains unchanged, still in its original Arabic language.

  • It was revealed over a period of 23 years.


The hadith
The Hadith

Words and traditions of the prophet Muhamad

(pbuh)~ peace and blessings be upon him

“The merciful bestows mercy to those who are merciful. Therefore show mercy to those on earth and the One in heaven will show mercy on you.”



Allah
Allah

  • Arabic word that means “the One God”.

  • The term Allah cannot be pluralized or gendered.


Salaam
Salaam

Assalaamu Alaikum

Peace Be Unto You

Wa Alaikum Assalam

And Upon You Be Peace


Islam
Islam

  • Arabic word

  • Means peace and submission to the will of God (Allah).

  • Those who follow Islam are called Muslims.


The 3 major religions are followers of the prophet, Abraham. These religions are monotheistic – all believe in the same, one God.


Muslim
Muslim

  • A Muslim is one who follows the way of Islam.

  • A Muslim submits to the will of God so that they can live in peace.


Mosque masjid
Mosque / Masjid

A place where Muslims worship God.


Adhan
Adhan

Islamic call to worship recited by the muezzin

at prescribed times of the day.


EID

Muslims have 2 festivals:

  • One at the end of the month of Ramadan.

  • The other at the time of the Hajj pilgrimage.



1. God

The word for God in

Arabic is Allah.

Christians and Jews living in Arabic speaking countries also use the word Allah when referring to God.


2. Angels

In Islam, Gabriel is considered one of the four archangels whom God sent with his divine message to various prophets, including the last prophet Muhammad (pbuh).


  • Adam

  • Noah

  • Abraham

  • Lot

  • Ishmael

  • Isaac

  • Jacob

  • Joseph

  • Job

  • Aaron

  • Moses

  • David

  • Solomon

  • Elijah

  • Jonah

  • Zechariah

  • John the Baptist

  • Jesus

  • Muhamad

3. Prophets

A prophet in Islam is a male human, from the sons of Adam; who received revelation from God in the form of Divine instructions.


4. Holy Books

Revealed to:In:

Taurah Moses Hebrew

ZaboorDavid Hebrew

Injeel Jesus Aramaic

Qur’an MuhammadArabic


5. Day of Judgment

6. Good vs. Bad

7. Life after Death

Paradise or Hell



1 declaration of faith
1. Declaration of Faith

  • When someone becomes Muslim he or she states the Shahadah:

    “La ilahail Allah, Muhammad-ur-Rasool-Allah”

  • As a person says the Shahadah they bear witness that there is one God and that the prophet Muhamad is the last Messenger of God.


2 prayer salah
2. Prayer - Salah

  • Pray five times a day

  • Prayer rug

  • Ablution – washing before prayer

  • Jum’ah – Friday prayer



3 charity zakat
3. Charity - Zakat

  • All things belong to God, therefore wealth is held by human beings in trust.

  • “Purification” and “Growth”. Possessions are purified by setting aside a proportion for those in need. This cutting back balances and encourages new growth (wealth).

  • 2.5% of ones income and wealth.


4 fasting saum
4. Fasting - Saum

Fasting helps to purify the soul, refocus attention on God, and practice self-sacrifice.

Ramadan

  • No food, drink or intimate relations from dawn until sunset for approximately 30 days.

  • The ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar.

  • Ramadan 2014~ June 28-July 27


5 pilgrimage hajj
5. Pilgrimage - Hajj

  • Mecca – Saudi Arabia

  • 5 days

  • Once in a lifetime

  • 4 million people perform the Hajj annually

  • Hajj 2014 ~ Oct. 1-6



  • Muslim Chaplain at HH and SFH

  • Born in Englandas a Muslim

  • Studied at Kings College in London

  • Graduate of the Hartford Seminary

  • President of MCCT

  • Berlin Mosque



Take the time to know your patient

The Muslim population in the U.S. is very diverse.

Cultural background may influence the way they respond to illness and other life crises.


Illness
Illness

During illness, Muslims are expected to:

  • Seek God’s help with patience and prayer;

  • Increase remembrance of God to obtain peace;

  • Ask for forgiveness;

  • Give more in charity and;

  • Read or listen to more of the Qur’an.


Patients, especially those who are terminally ill, are encouraged by family members to recite the Shahadah as it reaffirms ones connection with God.


Death
Death encouraged by family members to recite the

The Qur’an emphasizes that death is only a transition from this existence to a future life.

  • “Every living creature will die one day”.

  • “They (true believers) say: To God we belong and to Him is our return.”


Healthy body
Healthy Body encouraged by family members to recite the

The prophet Muhammad taught that maintaining a healthy body is an individual’s duty.

“Taking proper care of one’s health is the right of the body.”


Seeking treatment
Seeking Treatment encouraged by family members to recite the

The sayings of the Prophet encourage patients to seek proper treatments in the time of illness:

  • “There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also created its remedy.”

  • The prophet not only instructed sick people to take medicine, but he himself invited expert physicians for this purpose.”


Clothing modesty

Clothing & Modesty encouraged by family members to recite the



Women
Women is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • Hajib

  • Loose, non-revealing clothes.

  • Some women may be clothed from head to toe with the exception of the face.


Men is lost, the other goes as well.”

Men should be covered from the waist to the knees.


Touching
Touching is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • Shaking hands

  • Same gender nurse and doctor


Food nutrition

Food & Nutrition is lost, the other goes as well.”


Dietary restrictions
Dietary Restrictions is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • Halal

  • Pork

  • Gelatin

  • Alcohol

  • Shellfish


Fasting
Fasting is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • The month of Ramadan

  • Allowed exceptions:

    • The sick, the old, the young

    • Menstruating women

    • Pregnant women, nursing women

    • Travelers


Medical procedures

Medical Procedures is lost, the other goes as well.”


  • Blood Transfusions is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • Organ Donation

  • Abortions & Stillborn

  • Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

  • Autopsy

  • Cremation


Advance directives
Advance Directives is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • The Imam should work closely in discussion with medical staff.

  • DNR order is acceptable but it should be carefully explained.

  • Prolongation of life by supportive machines is strongly discouraged for those who are terminally ill – when the quality of life is poor.


Ventilators
Ventilators is lost, the other goes as well.”

  • If the patient is on a ventilator and there is total organ failure the ventilator can be withdrawn.

  • If the patient then breathes alone or stops breathing that is considered to be the will of God.

  • The ventilator cannot be withdrawn to end the patient’s life.


Death1

Death is lost, the other goes as well.”


Death is defined as the departure of the soul from the body – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.

  • “Brain death’ may not be accepted as death by some Muslims.

  • Most Muslims consider death as a cessation of all bodily functions.


Preparation of the body
Preparation of the Body – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.

  • Face toward Mecca.

  • Mouth and eyes closed.

  • Arms and legs straight - toes tied together.

  • Clothes removed by person of same gender.

  • Ritual body wash.

  • Wrapped in white cloth.


Burial
Burial – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.

  • Body buried quickly – usually within 24 hours.


Ann Minor – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.



Muslim greeting

Muslim Greeting – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.


Assalaamu Alaikum – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.

Wa alaykumu-s-salam


Family islam

Family & Islam – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.


  • Strong support system – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.

  • Parents & elderly

  • Visitations from family and friends

    "If a Muslim visits his/her fellow Muslim who is ill in the morning, then 70,000 Angels pray for that person until the night and if that person visits at night then they pray for him/her till the morning, and due to his/her good intentions he/she gains a garden in Paradise."


Patient advocate

Patient Advocate – however neither the Qur’an nor hadith give clear signs of the soul’s departure.


The Medical team should call a Muslim chaplain or the Islamic center if they are not familiar with the Islamic traditions.

Muslim Coalition of Connecticut


Food Islamic center if they are not familiar with the Islamic traditions.

Although the sick do not need to fast they may want to. A Muslim physician may be useful in advising and counseling the patient.

Halal foods ~ Jewish Kosher or Vegetarian

Haram foods:

  • Jello

  • Pork

  • Broth, Chowder, Soups, Gravy

  • Animal shortening - breads, puddings, etc.

  • Lard

  • Alcohol – vanilla extract, Dijon mustard


Prayers
Prayers Islamic center if they are not familiar with the Islamic traditions.

  • Let patient know the direction toward Mecca.

  • Position bed towards Mecca.

  • Get prayer schedule from the internet.

  • Play a recording of the Adhan.

  • Help them perform wudu.

  • Provide privacy.


Nov 2013 prayer schedule
Nov. 2013 Prayer Schedule Islamic center if they are not familiar with the Islamic traditions.


Dying process
Dying Process Islamic center if they are not familiar with the Islamic traditions.

At the last moments before death, Allah sends the angels of death to get the soul from the human body.

Allah says, “He is the irresistible, supreme over His slaves, and He sends guardians over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our messengers (angel of death and his assistants) take his soul, and they never neglect their duty.”

Surat Al-An’am, (verse 61)


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