South Africa:  Local e-Governance for Social and Economic Development

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SA key statistics. Population 47.9 million (StatsSA 2007 mid-year estimates), annual GDP estimate of 5.1% (2007), an urban population of 58.4%, adult literacy rate of 86% for ages 15 and above, and poverty levels of 20.2 % (StatsSA, SARPN) and HDI 120 out of 177 (UNDP). The potential of ICT to cont

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South Africa: Local e-Governance for Social and Economic Development

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1. South Africa: Local e-Governance for Social and Economic Development Luci Abrahams Wits University LINK Centre LOGIN Africa Cairo, 6 June 2008

2. SA key statistics Population 47.9 million (StatsSA 2007 mid-year estimates), annual GDP estimate of 5.1% (2007), an urban population of 58.4%, adult literacy rate of 86% for ages 15 and above, and poverty levels of 20.2 % (StatsSA, SARPN) and HDI 120 out of 177 (UNDP). The potential of ICT to contribute to the growth and development of the country has made an impact mainly in the privately owned services sector, with more limited diffusion in the manufacturing sector, and only minor impact in the mining, agriculture and construction sectors. However, in areas of international trade in services such as the business process outsourcing (BPO) market, South Africa has proved unable to attract investors. As regards social communication amongst individuals and households, access to and usage of ICTs is limited to voice communication, with only a small proportion of households having access to the Internet. South Africa is ranked 37 out of 115 countries in the INSEAD/WEF networked readiness rankings for 2005 – 2006, just above India at 40. However, India ranks higher on market environment, individual and business readiness, and business and government usage. While email & Internet have become popular mediums among senior managers in government and business, SMS is still the most popular form of communication,

3. Community Household Survey 2007 (StatsSA)

5. Digital Divide Report Access to telecommunications: 28.5% of households have access to landline 48.7% of households have access to a cellphone Community service telephones 1:250 people Access to computers and the Internet in the household: 25% of households have access to a PC 20% of households have access to the internet (concentrated in CoJ and CoT)(note limitation of affordability) Access to various forms of public telecommunications service centres High number of public telecomms service centres but potentially servicing incredibly high volumes of people impact of quality and access to services.

6. Context Scope of study – local e-governance for social development and local economic development Entities – 14 municipal level councils in Gauteng Province, total population 9m+ Vision – “globally competitive Gauteng city-region” – collective vision of provincial and municipal governments Growth and Development Strategy – 8% growth by 2014 Multisectoral Social Development Strategy – issues pertinent to local e-governance include housing, education, health, safety & security, social inclusion Local Economic Development strategies – issues pertinent to local e-governance include development of the mainstream economy [finance, manufacturing, infrastructure, services, R&D], integrating the “second economy” into the mainstream economy, increasing opportunities for employment [low and high income] through HRD and increased levels of investment SA Cities Network frame/applicability – 9 metro and district level governments across SA, with national DPLG (all have similar challenges, can share research & solutions) [cascading value of research]

7. Context

8. Gauteng Municipalities

9. Capacity and Organisation of the State Gauteng Provincial Government From DBSA provincial report

10. Capacity and Organisation of the State Gauteng Provincial Government From DBSA provincial report

11. GCR Vision for Gauteng Aims for high growth 8% >, based largely on manufacturing, infrastructure and services, building provincial innovation system, hosting international events eg FIFA World Cup 2010TM Aims to decrease rate of unemployment and increase rate of social inclusion Notes that ICT access and usage including e-governance characterises productive, competitive, innovative cities & can increase social inclusion, anti-poverty? – various initiatives

13. Social and Local Economic Development The following municipal functions support social and local economic development Social Development Childcare facilities, housing, municipal health services, free basic services, refuse removal, local amenities, sports facilities, municipal parks and recreation Local Economic Development Local tourism, municipal public transport, trading regulations, control of sale of alcohol and food, markets and street trading Metros have a broader definition

14. Phases of e-Government Development

15. Website Assessment Criteria

16. Website review: Key Findings 12 of the 14 municipalities have a website 11 of the 12 websites are still in Phase 1: Information Publishing Phase 2: City of Johannesburg stands out as it offers a range of services that can be conducted on-line

17. Content – Municipal Health Services Information on health services is mostly limited to information on clinics (apart from CoJ) Information is mostly presented in the form of databases, with some variation Only a few provided all the information required: name of clinic, physical address, contact number, dates and times of operation, and services rendered None of the districts supplied information on the environmental health functions and services Not always easy to find the information – should be intuitive or sites should have a functional search engine or site map to assist the process of finding the information

18. Content – Local Tourism Four websites had no tourist information (mainly local municipalities) Five websites had limited information on tourism Three websites had comprehensive information on tourism Only one website, namely CoJ, had information for emerging tour operators

19. Website review: commendations City of Johannesburg’s site map and e-services website eservice.joburg.org.za City of Tshwane’s Multi-lingual Policy www.tshwane.gov.za/multilingualism.cfm & www.tshwane.gov.za/wardcom.cmf Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality’s Refuse Removal Timetables www.ekurhuleni.com Sedibeng’s supplier development and guide “How do I tender?” www.sedibeng.gov.za/tender.html# West Rand Tourism Information www.wrdm.gov.za/tourism/tourism.htm Mogale City information for residents on health, education and library services www.mogalecity.gov.za Emfuleni for its online community satisfaction survey www.emfuleni.gov.za/satisfactionsurvey.htm

20. Strategies focus on infrastructure Joburg (metro) – 2010 ICT strategy Ekurhuleni (metro) – Digital City strategy Tshwane (metro) – Smart City strategy Sedibeng, Emfuleni & Mogale City (District & local) – basic IT needs, MSP & integrated development plan Gauteng government (province) – Gauteng eGovernment Blueprint

21. Strategy, Responsiveness, Transparency Unco-ordinated action & spending Infrastructure without connectedness Global city-region perspective does not highlight ICT at local level Leadership & co-ordinating role of Department of Local Government requires definition

22. Outline of “model” GCR e-governance strategy A. SD, LED,GCR objectives B. e-Governance response: e-services, e-administration, e-society (phases of maturity) C. e-Gov access mapping & strategy D. e-Gov delivery audit & strategy (phases of maturity, targets & timeframes) Content management (knowledge management) E. Institutional mechanisms & resources F. Monitoring and evaluation of inputs and outputs recommendations/revisions for outcomes & impact

23. Strategic Initiative 1 An e-governance strategy for the provincial and municipal governments of Gauteng must identify the particular focus for e-governance for selected provincial departments and each of the municipalities, based on their respective social and LED priorities. These focal areas could, for example, be health and schools for Tshwane, emergency services for Sedibeng and local tourism and transport for City of Joburg. The choice should be based on an area that would make a significant impact in the lives or on the livelihoods of a large percentage of the population living in the province or municipality. The choices should be limited to 2 or 3 manageable projects per municipality. To contribute to social and local economic development, future GDS and IDP documents should have explicitly stated social and LED objectives based on identified needs, and should include a chapter stating the priority egovernance projects that will be implemented as a means to achieving the objectives set.

24. Strategic Initiative 3 The e-governance strategy must provide for a structured Content Management System that goes beyond the Internet, including a collaborative system for the three district and their related local municipalities. Public servants, teachers and communities themselves can be content creators.

25. Strategic Initiative 5 A comprehensive budget should be compiled with individual breakdowns per municipality for current capital expenditure and running costs on ICT infrastructure for e-governance. This picture can be used to explore options for funding e-governance development and infrastructure, as well as e-governance applications that can be commonly utilised across municipalities

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