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Avian Influenza 101. Prepared by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health May 2006. Goals:. Understand differences in flu types Recognize relative risk Discuss food safety aspects Know how to handle dead birds. 3 Categories of Flu. Pandemic flu is NOT bird flu!. 3 Categories of Flu.

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Avian influenza 101

Avian Influenza 101

Prepared by the Indiana State Board of Animal Health

May 2006


  • Understand differences in flu types

  • Recognize relative risk

  • Discuss food safety aspects

  • Know how to handle dead birds

3 categories of flu

3 Categories of Flu

Pandemic flu is NOT bird flu!

3 categories of flu1
3 Categories of Flu

  • Pandemic Flu

    • Does not currently exist

      • Warnings are based on predictions

    • An existing virus must mutate first

    • Human-to-human transmission

    • Predicted based on historical cycles

      • About 3 every century

3 categories of flu2
3 Categories of Flu

  • Avian Influenza H5N1

    • One strain of many

    • Most active in Asia

    • Has not been found in North America

3 categories of flu3
3 Categories of Flu

  • All other avian influenzas

    • Many other strains of the virus

    • May or may not have human health affects

      • Most do not

    • Considered a general economic, as well as health, threat to poultry industry

      • Routine flock testing by industry, USDA and Indiana State Board of Animal Health

What is avian flu

What Is Avian Flu?

Simple Answer: A Virus

Avian influenza
Avian Influenza

  • Numerous subtypes

  • HxNx: 16 Hs and 9 Ns

    • Theoretically 144 combinations

    • Antigens on the virus surface

  • Few have human health impact

    • H5N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, H9N2

    • Most no more than conjunctivitis

Avian influenza1
Avian Influenza

  • Why the concern about H5N1?

    • Unique transmission directly to people

      • Only with very close contact with birds

      • No sustained human-to-human transmission

    • Some similarities to 1918 strain

    • High death rate among reported cases

Low path ai key facts
Low-Path AI: Key Facts

  • Does occur periodically in the U.S.

    • Naturally in wild bird populations

  • No known human health affects

  • Is not cause for fear

High path ai key facts
High Path AI: Key Facts

  • Not currently found in N. America

    • Texas, British Columbia: 2004

    • Pennsylvania: 1983-84

  • H5N1 currently not readily transmissible to humans

    • No sustained human-human spread

  • High death rate in birds

Hpai clinical signs
HPAI: Clinical Signs

  • Sudden death without signs

  • Lack of energy, appetite

  • Reduced egg production

  • Swollen head, eyelids, comb, wattles

  • Discolored purple wattles, comb, legs

  • Nasal discharge, coughing, sneezing

  • Report cases to: 866-536-7593

What is our risk of h5n1

What is Our Risk of H5N1?

Indiana is not a high-risk state

H5n1 risk
H5N1 Risk

  • U.S. ban on trade with countries with HPAI infection

    • No live birds, eggs or poultry products

  • Most U.S. poultry raised indoors

    • High biosecurity in commercial flocks

  • Close bird contact is uncommon

    • In homes

H5n1 risk1
H5N1 Risk

  • Migratory birds

    • Waterfowl on international fly-ways

      • Nationwide testing of wild birds

      • Pacific rim/Alaska

    • Indiana is not on a major fly-way

    • Resident Canada geese are low risk

    • USDA, DNR targeted surveillance

Can i get ai from eating eggs or poultry

Can I Get AI From Eating Eggs or Poultry?

AI is not a food safety threat

Food safety
Food Safety

  • If properly handled, AI is no threat

    • Wash your hands when handling food

    • Clean all surfaces in contact with raw meat

    • Keep foods cold before and after cooking

    • Do not cross-contaminate

    • Cook poultry to 170 degrees F

      • Avian influenza virus is killed at 140 F

Food safety1
Food Safety

  • Poultry products are inspected

    • Twice: before and after slaughter

  • Sick, dead birds are not processed

  • All flocks are tested for AI

    • Infected flocks are destroyed without entering the food chain

How do i know my food supply is safe

How Do I Know MyFood Supply Is Safe?

Testing and Inspection

Food supply safety
Food Supply Safety

  • U.S. agriculture is different

    • Commercial flocks raised indoors

    • Biosecurity prevents wild bird exposure

    • Poultry raised away from other species

    • Animals not kept in homes/close human contact

    • Flocks regularly tested for disease

      • 75,000+ birds in IN this year



Food supply safety1
Food Supply Safety

  • U.S. food consumption is different

    • Healthy birds slaughtered under inspection

    • Cultural food preferences are lower risk

      • Thorough cooking

    • Live bird markets uncommon in U.S.

      • Birds are slaughtered on-the-spot

      • Indiana has banned traditional markets

Birds die for lots of reasons
Birds Die for Lots of Reasons

  • Natural deaths

    • Predators, severe weather, short life span

  • Accidents

    • Impacts with power lines, aircraft, buildings

  • Toxicants

    • Legal & illegal pest control methods

    • Spoiled grain and dirty bird feeders

    • Environmental contamination

Birds die for lots of reasons1
Birds Die for Lots of Reasons

  • Diseases

    • Most do not have human health affects!

  • West Nile virus

    • Blue jays, robins, crows, cardinals, raptors

      • Call your LOCAL health department

  • Avianinfluenza

    • Migratory geese, ducks, swans, shorebirds

      • Call Wildlife Conflicts Hotline 800-893-4116

Tips for dead wild birds
Tips for Dead Wild Birds

  • Do not handle it

    • Treat it like dog poop!

    • Wear disposable gloves or place a plastic bag over your hand to pick it up

    • Place it in a plastic bag

    • Wash your hands afterward

  • Dispose of it in your garbage