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Gene - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Nucleic Acids. ● Include DNA and RNA Information storage molecules They provide the directions for building proteins. Gene. DNA. Nucleic acids. RNA. Amino acid. Protein. Nucleic Acids. ●Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T).

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Nucleic Acids

  • ● Include DNA and RNA
  • Information storage molecules
  • They provide the directions for building proteins

Gene

DNA

Nucleic acids

RNA

Amino acid

Protein

slide2

Nucleic Acids

  • ●Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides

Nitrogenous base

(A,G,C, or T)

  • DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid
  • RNA, ribonucleic acid

Nitrogenous base

A, G, C, or U

Thymine (T)

Phosphate

group

Sugar

(deoxyribose)

Uracil U

Phosphate

Phosphate

group

Base

Sugar

Sugar ribose

slide3

Nucleic Acids

●Each nucleotide has one of the following bases:

slide4

Nucleic Acids

●Nucleic Acid Structure

Sugar-phosphate

backbone

Base

pair

Nucleotide

Hydrogen

bond

Bases

a DNA strand

polynucleotide

b Double helix

two polynucleotide strands

slide5

Nucleic Acids

●Nucleic Acid Structure

slide6

Nucleic Acids

DNA Structure

carbohydrates
Carbohydrates includeCarbohydrates
  • Small sugar molecules in soft drinks
    • Monosaccharides & Disaccharides
  • Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes
    • Polysaccharides
monosaccharides
Monosaccharides are simple sugarsMonosaccharides
    • Glucose, found in sports drinks
    • Fructose, found in fruit
  • Honey contains both glucose and fructose

Fructose

Glucose

Isomers

disaccharides
A disaccharide is a double sugarDisaccharides
  • Disaccharides are joined by the process of dehydration synthesis

Glucose

Glucose

Maltose

disaccharides1
The most common disaccharide is sucrose, common table sugarDisaccharides
  • It consists of a glucose linked to a fructose
  • Sucrose is extracted from sugar cane and the roots of sugar beets
slide12
Polysaccharides
  • They are long chains of sugar units
  • They are polymers of monosaccharides

Glucose

monomer

Starch granules in

potato tuber cells

(a) Starch

Glycogen

Granules

In muscle

tissue

(b) Glycogen

Cellulose fibril in

a plant cell wall

Cellulose molecules

(c) Cellulose

slide13

Lipids

  • ●Lipidsare:
  • Large biological molecules that do not include polymers.
  • Hydrophobic, unable to mix with water.

Oil (hydrophobic)

Vinegar (hydrophilic)

slide14

Lipids

  • ●FATS
  • ● Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride
  • A combination of glycerol and three fatty acids

Fatty acid

Glycerol

(a) A dehydration reaction linking a fatty acid to glycerol

(b) A fat molecule with a glycerol “head” and three

energy-rich hydrocarbon fatty acid “tails”

slide15

Lipids (Fats)

●Unsaturated fatty acids

    • Have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons
  • ●Saturated fatty acids
    • Have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons
slide16

Lipids (Fats)

TYPES OF FATS

Saturated Fats

Unsaturated Fats

Margarine

INGREDIENTS: SOYBEAN OIL, FULLY HYDROGENATED

COTTONSEED OIL, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED

COTTONSEED OIL AND SOYBEAN OILS, MONO AND

DIGLYCERIDES, TBHO AND CITRIC ACID ANTIOXIDANTS

Trans fats

Omega-3 fats

Plant oils

slide17

Lipids

Phospholipids

Steroids

slide18

Lipids

●STEROIDS

Steroids are very different from fats in structure and function.

Cholesterol

Testosterone

A type of estrogen

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