Nucleic Acids
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Nucleic Acids. ● Include DNA and RNA Information storage molecules They provide the directions for building proteins. Gene. DNA. Nucleic acids. RNA. Amino acid. Protein. Nucleic Acids. ●Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides. Nitrogenous base (A,G,C, or T).

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Gene

Nucleic Acids

  • ● Include DNA and RNA

  • Information storage molecules

  • They provide the directions for building proteins

Gene

DNA

Nucleic acids

RNA

Amino acid

Protein


Gene

Nucleic Acids

  • ●Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides

Nitrogenous base

(A,G,C, or T)

  • DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid

  • RNA, ribonucleic acid

Nitrogenous base

A, G, C, or U

Thymine (T)

Phosphate

group

Sugar

(deoxyribose)

Uracil U

Phosphate

Phosphate

group

Base

Sugar

Sugar ribose


Gene

Nucleic Acids

●Each nucleotide has one of the following bases:


Gene

Nucleic Acids

●Nucleic Acid Structure

Sugar-phosphate

backbone

Base

pair

Nucleotide

Hydrogen

bond

Bases

a DNA strand

polynucleotide

b Double helix

two polynucleotide strands


Gene

Nucleic Acids

●Nucleic Acid Structure


Gene

Nucleic Acids

DNA Structure


Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates include

Carbohydrates

  • Small sugar molecules in soft drinks

    • Monosaccharides & Disaccharides

  • Long starch molecules in pasta and potatoes

    • Polysaccharides


Monosaccharides

Monosaccharides are simple sugars

Monosaccharides

  • Glucose, found in sports drinks

  • Fructose, found in fruit

  • Honey contains both glucose and fructose

  • Fructose

    Glucose

    Isomers


    Monosaccharides1

    In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides form rings

    Monosaccharides

    (b) Abbreviated ring

    structure


    Disaccharides

    A disaccharide is a double sugar

    Disaccharides

    • Disaccharides are joined by the process of dehydration synthesis

    Glucose

    Glucose

    Maltose


    Disaccharides1

    The most common disaccharide is sucrose, common table sugar

    Disaccharides

    • It consists of a glucose linked to a fructose

    • Sucrose is extracted from sugar cane and the roots of sugar beets


    Gene

    Polysaccharides

    • They are long chains of sugar units

    • They are polymers of monosaccharides

    Glucose

    monomer

    Starch granules in

    potato tuber cells

    (a) Starch

    Glycogen

    Granules

    In muscle

    tissue

    (b) Glycogen

    Cellulose fibril in

    a plant cell wall

    Cellulose molecules

    (c) Cellulose


    Gene

    Lipids

    • ●Lipidsare:

    • Large biological molecules that do not include polymers.

    • Hydrophobic, unable to mix with water.

    Oil (hydrophobic)

    Vinegar (hydrophilic)


    Gene

    Lipids

    • ●FATS

    • ● Dietary fat consists largely of the molecule triglyceride

    • A combination of glycerol and three fatty acids

    Fatty acid

    Glycerol

    (a) A dehydration reaction linking a fatty acid to glycerol

    (b) A fat molecule with a glycerol “head” and three

    energy-rich hydrocarbon fatty acid “tails”


    Gene

    Lipids (Fats)

    ●Unsaturated fatty acids

    • Have less than the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons

  • ●Saturated fatty acids

    • Have the maximum number of hydrogens bonded to the carbons


  • Gene

    Lipids (Fats)

    TYPES OF FATS

    Saturated Fats

    Unsaturated Fats

    Margarine

    INGREDIENTS: SOYBEAN OIL, FULLY HYDROGENATED

    COTTONSEED OIL, PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED

    COTTONSEED OIL AND SOYBEAN OILS, MONO AND

    DIGLYCERIDES, TBHO AND CITRIC ACID ANTIOXIDANTS

    Trans fats

    Omega-3 fats

    Plant oils


    Gene

    Lipids

    Phospholipids

    Steroids


    Gene

    Lipids

    ●STEROIDS

    Steroids are very different from fats in structure and function.

    Cholesterol

    Testosterone

    A type of estrogen


    Gene

    Biological Molecules


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