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Emerging Environmental Challenges for Biofuels Production Elliott Campbell University of California, Merced PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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EBI, September 24, 2010. Emerging Environmental Challenges for Biofuels Production Elliott Campbell University of California, Merced. Liquid Biofuel. (EPA, 2010). Biopower. (EIA, 2010). Why Bioenergy?. Similarities to current energy system Near-term Cost effective Scalable

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Emerging Environmental Challenges for Biofuels Production Elliott Campbell University of California, Merced

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EBI, September 24, 2010

Emerging Environmental Challenges for Biofuels ProductionElliott Campbell University of California, Merced


Liquid Biofuel

(EPA, 2010)


Biopower

(EIA, 2010)


Why Bioenergy?

  • Similarities to current energy system

  • Near-term

  • Cost effective

  • Scalable

  • Deployable/storable

  • Carbon-negative potential

  • Rural economic development

  • Appropriate technology options for the developing world

  • Synergies with fossil fuels

  • Synergies with other renewables

  • Perhaps better to ask “How?”


Roadmap

  • Air Quality

  • Short-Lived Climate Forcers

  • Land-Use Efficiency


1) Air Quality


Vehicle Phase Emissions

  • Ozone increase in LA and northeast offset by decrease in southeast

  • E85 unlikely to improve air quality

  • Emissions outside of vehicle phase neglected

(Jacobson, ES&T, 2007)


Life-Cycle Emissions

  • Human health costs ~ Climate change costs

  • Importance of upstream emissions relative to vehicle emissions

(Hill et al., PNAS, 2007)


Sugarcane Ethanol Emissions


Importance of Open Burning


Emissions Currently Underpredicted


Relation to Next-Generation Biofuels

  • Create a market for sugarcane trash

  • Emissions from indirect land-use change

(Morton et al., GCB, 2008)


2) Short-Lived Climate Forcers


Short Live Climate Forcers (SLCFs)

  • Aerosols and Ozone

  • Atmospheric lifetimes of days to weeks

  • Cooling and warming properties

  • Spatial-explicit climate impacts

  • Black Carbon has 55% of the RF caused by CO2 and a greater forcing than all other SLCFs (Ramanathan and Carmichael, 2008)


(Unger et al., PNAS, 2008)


Need for a Regional Analysis

(Naik et al., GRL, 2007)


3) Land-Use Efficiency


Global Land Use

(Campbell et al., ES&T, 2008)


County-Level Abandoned Agriculture

(Campbell et al., in prep)


Regional Land Use

(Debolt, Campbell, et al., GCB-Bioenergy, 2010)


Carbonyl Sulfide (COS, OCS, CSO)

  • Source for stratospheric sulfate aerosol.

  • Important role in stratospheric ozone.

  • A novel tracer of terrestrial photosynthesis?


Vertical Profiles

(Campbell et al., Science, 2008)


Energy Conversion Pathways


Transportation per Cropland Area

a) Ethanol

b) Bioelectricity

(Campbell, Lobell, & Field, Science, 2009)


Conversion Pathways

  • Advantages to expanding focus to include electricity in addition to liquid fuels

  • Greater emphasis on jet and tanker fuels

  • Lignin rich feedstock


Questions for Emerging Issues

  • Win-win solutions where environmental mitigation results in more bioenergy supply?

    • E.g. Sugarcane burning vs. second-generation fuels

  • SLCFs incorporated in mandated GHG thresholds?

  • International leakage of air quality impacts?

  • Abandoned lands and other alternative land resources?


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