Lab Activity 32. Urinalysis. Portland Community College BI 233. Filtration. Occurs in the renal corpuscles: blood pressure forces water and small dissolved molecules to move from the glomerular capillaries to the capsular space and is called the filtrate. Filtrate.
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Lab Activity 32
Portland Community College
“Dipstick" method: chemical reactions cause color changes on ten different pads on the test strip.
pH: large range 4.5 to 8.0 (average is 6.0)
Nitrite: Might indicate bacterial infection with gram-negative rods (like E. coli)
If bacteria are present, they convert nitrates to nitrites
Bilirubin: indicates the presence of liver disease or biliary obstruction
A small amount of bilirubin in urine is normal excessive amounts is called
Urobilinogen: Produced in the intestine from bilirubin. Gives feces brown color
Leukocytes: Indicates infection or inflammation
Blood: Almost always indicates pathology because RBC are too large to pass through glomerulus
Protein: Usually proteins are too large to pass through glomerulus (Proteinuria usually represents an abnormality in the glomerular filtration barrier.)
Glucose: In general the presence of glucose indicates that the filtered load of glucose exceeds the maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity for glucose. Normal=negative (can occur temporarily after eating a high carb meal or during stress)
Ketones: Intermediate products of fat metabolism
Squamous epithelial cell
Transitional epithelial cell
Hyaline Casts appear Transparent
A = crenated RBC, B = RBC, C = bacteria