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The Chemistry of Acids and Bases –Finding pH and pOH. Strong and Weak Acids/Bases. The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION. HNO 3 , HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 are among the only known strong acids. Strong and Weak Acids/Bases.

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slide2

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

The strength of an acid (or base) is determined by the amount of IONIZATION.

HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and HClO4 are among the only known strong acids.

slide3

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

  • Weak acids are much less than 100% ionized in water.

One of the best known is acetic acid = CH3CO2H

strong and weak acids bases
Strong and Weak Acids/Bases
  • Generally divide acids and bases into STRONG or WEAK ones.

STRONG ACID:HNO3 (aq) + H2O (l) ---> H3O+ (aq) + NO3- (aq)

HNO3 is about 100% dissociated in water.

slide5

CaO

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

  • Strong Base:100% dissociated in water.

NaOH (aq) ---> Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Other common strong bases include KOH andCa(OH)2.

CaO+ H2O -->Ca(OH)2

slide6

Strong and Weak Acids/Bases

  • Weak base:less than 100% ionized in water

One of the best known weak bases is ammonia

NH3 (aq) + H2O (l)  NH4+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

calculating the ph
Calculating the pH

pH = - log [H+]

pH is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration, [H+]

(Remember that the [ ] mean Molarity)

Example: If [H+] = 1 X 10-10pH = - log 1 X 10-10

pH = 10

Example: If [H+] = 1.8 X 10-5pH = - log 1.8 X 10-5

pH = 4.74

try these
Try These!

Find the pH of these:

1) A 0.15 M solution of Hydrochloric acid

2) A 3.00 X 10-7 M solution of Nitric acid

H/O pH Practice Worksheet

calculating the poh poh log oh poh is a measure of the hydroxide ion concentration oh
Example:

Find the pOH of a 0.1M NaOH solution

pOH = -log(0.1)

pOH = 1

pH + pOH = 14

Example:

Find the pOH of a solution of HCl that has a pH of 3.4.

pH = 3.4

pOH = 14 – 3.4 = 10.6

Calculating the pOHpOH = -log [OH-]pOH is a measure of the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-]
ph calculations solving for h
pH calculations – Solving for H+

If the pH of Coke is 3.12, [H+] = ???

Because pH = - log [H+] then

- pH = log [H+]

Take antilog (10x) of both sides and get

10-pH =[H+]

[H+] = 10-3.12 = 7.6 x 10-4 M

*** to find antilog on your calculator, look for “Shift” or “2nd function” and then the log button

ph calculations solving for h1
pH calculations – Solving for H+
  • A solution has a pH of 8.5. What is the Molarity of hydrogen ions in the solution?

pH = - log [H+]

8.5 = - log [H+]

-8.5 = log [H+]

Antilog -8.5 = antilog (log [H+])

10-8.5 = [H+]

3.16 X 10-9 = [H+]

slide14

pH

[H+]

[OH-]

pOH

water
Water

H2O can function as both an ACID and a BASE (amphoteric).

In pure water there can beAUTOIONIZATION

Equilibrium constant for water = Kw

Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] =1.00 x 10-14at 25 oC

more about water
More About Water

Autoionization

Kw = [H3O+] [OH-] = 1.00 x 10-14 at 25 oC

In a neutral solution [H3O+] = [OH-]

so Kw = [H3O+]2 = [OH-]2

and so [H3O+] = [OH-] = 1.00 x 10-7 M

slide17

The OH- ion concentration of a blood sample is 2.5 x 10-7 M. What is the pH of the blood?

The pH of rainwater collected in a certain region of the northeastern United States on a particular day was 4.82. What is the H+ ion concentration of the rainwater?

slide18

Calculating [H3O+], pH, [OH-], and pOH

Problem 1: A chemist dilutes concentrated hydrochloric acid to make two solutions: (a) 3.0 M and (b) 0.0024 M. Calculate the [H+], pH, [OH-], and pOH of the two solutions at 25°C.

Problem 2: What is the [H+], [OH-], and pOH of a solution with pH = 3.67? Is this an acid, base, or neutral?

Problem 3: Problem #2 with pH = 8.05?

cheat sheet
Cheat Sheet
  • To find pH use: –log of M
  • To find pOH: 14-pH
  • To find [H+]: 2nd log -pH
  • To find [OH-]: 2nd log -pOH
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