In Literature. The conflicts associated with natural resources are part of the fabric of local communities as well as integral to the global condition.Levels of the conflictsfamily, village/clan, inter-village/inter-community, State/community, or international . Why the Conflict?. incompatibl
1. RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN IGBETI, OKE OGUN, SOUTH-WESTERN NIGERIA The white marble in Igbeti was discovered about the late 60s. It was learnt that the quality of the marble was next in best quality to that of the rock of Gibrotha in Italy, and could be tapped for 400 years.
The Spontaneous Development
The Challenge of Sustainability
At the time of this study the activity at the marble site was moribund and the socio-political activity in the community is polarized with no remarkable physical and economic development that signifies the existence of this natural resource in the community.
This study is poised to address the following questions.
(i) Could this be the effect of how the conflict has been managed?
(ii) Has the Igbeti community positively benefited from this natural endowment?
(iii) Is it another case of “resource curse”?
2. In Literature
The conflicts associated with natural resources are part of the fabric of local communities as well as integral to the global condition.
Levels of the conflicts
family, village/clan, inter-village/inter-community, State/community, or international
3. Why the Conflict? incompatible interests
when local traditional practices are no longer viewed as legitimate or consistent with national policies,
changes in political and legal systems
increasing degradation of the physical environment and diminishing resource base,
demographic shifts across the globe e.t.c
4. The focus of this study is to scientifically investigate the conflict, in other to appraise the cause, nature, actors and the extent to which it has permeated the social, economic, cultural and political development of the community. With these in mind, the past conflict resolution mechanisms was studied, and recommendation of proactive resolution approach that would not jeopardize a sustainable development.
5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The course of this research is descriptive and the focus group discussion method was adopted because of its advantage of enabling to learn or confirm not just the facts (as in survey method), but the meaning behind the facts.
And its high apparent validity - since the idea is easy to understand, the results are believable and help study people in a more natural setting than a one-to-one interview.
After a well managed Focus Group Discussion method was used to obtain data from four different groups from different quarters of Igbeti community, the data were analyzed by simple descriptive methods and tabulation.
6. Igbeti Community before the Marble discovery.
Table 1: Pre- marble conflict situation.
1. “The best peaceful period ever witnessed”.
2. High level of mutual relations, peaceful co – existence.
3. Peaceful co – existence. Traditional Institution orderliness
4. “We never see that level of cooperation and togetherness again”.” Of a fact the marble is a curse.”
7. Sources of Conflicts and the Actors
Table 2: The major causes or factors of the conflicts
Groups Issues viewed as causes.
1. Land ownership tussle, back door occupancy personality differences. Change in management and operators mistrust and “power show”.
2. Assumptions are being made, wrong perceptions, fear of domination. Knowledge is minimal, land ownership, greediness and un met needs.
3. Too high expectation, personality difference and jealousy, change of operator and management, power wrangles.
4. Land ownership problem, poor communication, values being tested. Dissatisfaction with management style; lack of transparency.
8. Table 3
stakeholder Description Interest
Serikis The peasant farmers on the land
where marble was discovered. Land property right and compensation
Onigbeti The traditional head of Igbeti community Land ownership, leadership power and royalty.
Crop of community elites perceived
to be the community’s voice. Those
that aligned with Asamu company “Profitable development “Concern for power.
Asamu company The indigenous mining company whose
management regime sparked off the
Igbeti marble conflict Commercial profiteering.
Organization The umbrella socio-cultural organization Peace building and effective
that oversees the development of Igbeti management for development.
community. A mediator
Government The intervening government Profit and development.
9. Table 4: Line of Internal divisions
Groups Points of disagreement. 1. Politics, chieftaincy and marble land lease. Cooperation of community segments.
2. Marble land occupancy and political affiliations.
3. Traditional structure and power value system; land matters.
4. Socio-political activities, lease of marble land to Asamu, politics
10. Table 5: Noticed effect on the socio-political activities
1. Increase or sharpens differences, political polarization. Shifted attention from other important activities
2. Polarizes people and groups in the community. Display of irresponsible behaviors , loss of resources (human)
3. Undermines morale, reducing co-operation. Increases harmful behavior (fighting, name calling)
4. No self concept. Mistrust.
11. The Management of the Conflict.
Table 6: Conflict management strategies employed to date
Groups Mechanisms Known
1. Litigations, conciliatory moved by the actors talks. Ownership and force.
2. Peace conference, Litigation, indigenous mediation processes by some stake holder.
3. Reconciliation groups meetings by Igbeti Toro, Litigation, Avoidance
4. Litigation, co-ownership , withdrawal
12. Table 7: Elements of conflict continuity
Groups Element and indicators
1. Connivance with external factors; withholding bad news. No discussion of progress, Body language.
2. Unclear property rights; public accusation of conspiracy Collectivization of elite conflict, open disagreement regardless of issues.
3. Leadership wrangles, desire for power.
4. Mutual mistrust, mysterious deaths and need for self defense. Lack of charismatic leaders, increasing lack of respect.
It is noteworthy to conclude that this study has revealed the following facts:
There was a conflict or array of conflicts in the process of the development and management of the Igbeti marble resource, located in Igbeti community of Olorunsogo local government of Oyo State, Oke-Ogun South Western Nigeria.
The conflict has the Serikis, Onigbeti and the Concerned Elites in the community as the primary internal actors or stakeholders and the Ashamu Company as an external primary stakeholder. Igbeti Toro- an umbrella socio-cultural organization in the community and the Oyo state government are the respective secondary internal and external stakeholders for their mediation role.
Major causes and factors of the conflict include Land property rights, Personality differences, Leadership wrangles, Lack of transparency, Minimal knowledge, Poor communication and Political rivalry.
The interests of the stakeholders span through land property rights, compensation, power, profit, development benefits commercial profiteering to other high personal expectations. And these informed the line of internal divisions that exists around politics, land property right and compensation, marble land lease and traditional structure and power play.
14. The conflict management approaches and strategies like conciliatory talks, force, indigenous mediation process, withdrawal & avoidance and co-ownership method have been employed so far to put the conflict behind, but the existing indicators like collectivization of elite conflict, unclear property rights, withholding of bad news and accusation of conspiracy are underlying issues that suggests that the conflict on Igbeti marble is still very active and lingers.
Community participation in the development management of the resources in Igbeti is summarily nil. And the community has myriads of woes and misfortunes as the reparation and dividends received from the development of marble natural resource in Igbeti. There is no reparation from any government.
Generally, the conflict has permeated the fabrics of the socio-political activities of the community as each management regimes had no proactive impact on the conflict.
And the present situation in Igbeti is a sharp contrast of a peaceful and united environment that it used to be before the discovery of the natural marble. There is no trace of reparation benefits. Therefore, there is a need for a more proactive approach to Igbeti marble conflict management, in order to revive the moribund marble company and effectively manage it to meet the community, private investors and other stake holders expectations including the government.
Land property right classification must be put in place by the appropriate authorities to support viable customary land tenure and resource management system.
There should be an all encompassing aggressive advocacy and enlightenment on peace education, promotion of dispute resolution culture and systematized and fair dispute settlement that can support local mediation efforts in Igbeti community.
Public dialogue on the past and introduction of the myths referring to past-oriented collective identity should be encouraged to promote mutual interests and other area of unity.
Evolve a proactive consensus – building process that will enhance social cohesion and constructive management of the lingering marble conflict with a virile and viable resource management system put in place in the interest of sustainable development.
16. THANK YOU