Founders Review. According to Freud, what is the third psychosexual stage (age 3-6)? How is it resolved? Answer: Phallic, identification with same sex parent Name that defense mechanism: The defense mechanism that underlies all the rest. repression Acting the opposite of how you feel
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According to Freud, what is the third psychosexual stage (age 3-6)? How is it resolved?
Answer: Phallic, identification with same sex parent
Name that defense mechanism:
The defense mechanism that underlies all the rest.
Acting the opposite of how you feel
Addressing problem from an emotionless perspective
Redirecting feelings to a less-threatening object
Accusing others of unacceptable desire you are having.
3. Name that person:
- Neo-Freudian that created birth order theories and focused on feelings of inferiority
- founder of trait theory
- father of psychoanalysis.
- first to suggest introversion and extraversion as underlying personality traits
- proposed theories of basic anxiety and womb envy as determinants of personality
- proposed theory of collective unconscious
4. Rorschach, TAT, Draw-a-person are all examples of this type of test.
- Projective tests
5. Name 3 personality inventories that align with the trait perspective.
- MMPI, Myers-Briggs, NEO-FFI, 16PF, BFI
6. Which is the most commonly used, empirically-derived personality inventory?
7. According to the trait perspective, what determines our personality?
- Genes, biology
8. According to psychoanalysis, what determines our personality?
- The unconscious; how we mediate unconscious desires and societal expectations; how we coped with unconscious sexual desires as a child (with the help of our primary caregiver)
Studied healthy, creative people (not mentally ill)
Found in them a desire to self-actualize (fulfill their potential).
Self-actualizing people are: self aware, caring, open, spontaneous, loving, secure, problem-centered, have a few deep relationships, moved by peak experiences
Peak experience= sudden feelings of intense happiness and well-being, and possibly the awareness of "ultimate truth" and the unity of all things.
Being need (self-actualization): a need that is always salient.
Deficiency needs (bottom four levels): Needs that are salient only when deficient.
According to Maslow, only 2-3% of people are truly self-actualizing.
If you have significant difficulty fulfilling a need at some point in your life you may “fixate” at that level and develop neuroses.
Meredith Gray was abandoned by her father and raised by an emotionally cold mother, causing her to fixate at the belongingness stage. Now, she has difficulty accepting love from others.
Acorns need water, sun, and air to grow.
We need genuineness, acceptance and empathy to grow.
An attitude of acceptance regardless of circumstances.
Accepting yourself or others completely.
We tend to act and perceive the world positively.
We fall short of our “ideal self” and feel dissatisfied and unhappy
... And lose touch with what WE want to be “real self”
The way to cure neurosis is…
Some. Self-knowledge helps: Research shows that we perform better if we take time to set clear goals for ourselves.
Correlational studies show that people who feel good about themselves have fewer sleepless nights, resist pressure to conform, are less likely to use drugs, are more persistent at difficult tasks, are less shy and lonely, and are happier.(does high self-esteem causes these or is it the other way around?)
Experimental research has shown that low-self esteem can CAUSE people to act thin-skinned, judgmental, more prejudiced, and excessively critical.
They value the areas in which they excel.
They attribute problems to prejudice.
They compare themselves to their own group.