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Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Sciences – A National Facility at Bose Institute ( A project under IRHPA Scheme ) Sibaji Raha Bose Institute Kolkata. Acharya J.C. Bose (1858 – 1937).

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Centre for Astroparticle Physics and Space Sciences –

A National Facility at Bose Institute

(A project under IRHPA Scheme)

Sibaji Raha

Bose Institute


Acharya J.C. Bose (1858 – 1937)

“Thus the lines of physics, of physiology and psychology converge and meet. And here will assemble those who would seek oneness amidst the manifold”– Acharya J.C.Bose

Genesis & Mission

  • Drawn by Nationalist zeal,

    Missionary vision,

    Faith in the ability of Indians

    Not merely a laboratory but a temple

  • 1896 – visit to Royal Institution, London

    Took firm roots of the Idea

  • 1915 – Retirement from Education Service

  • 1917 – Bose Institute was Founded

“And in this country through millenniums, there always have been some who, beyond the immediate and absorbing prize of the hour, sought for the realization of the highest ideal of life – not through passive renunciation, but through active struggle”

“The advancement of science is the principal object of the Institute, andalso the diffusion of knowledge”

“ In this institute…the claim of art has not been forgotten, for the artist has been working with us, from foundation to pinnacle and from floor to ceiling of this very hall….

“And beyond the arch, the laboratory merges imperceptibly into the garden which is true laboratory for the study of life. There the creepers, the plants and trees are played upon by natural environment, sunlight and wind… and where they will be subjected to chromatic action of different lights, to invisible rays, to electrified ground or thunder-charged atmosphere.”

“India is drawn into the vortex of international competition. She has to become efficient in every way – through spread of education, through performance of civic duties and responsibilities, through activities both industrial and commercial. Neglect of these essentials of national duty will imperil her very existence.”– Acharya J.C.Bose


  • In-house expertise : Need for consolidation

  • Darjeeling Campus : Location & Opportunities

    (a) Cosmic Ray

    (b) Atmospheric Chemistry

    (c) Radiometric studies

Four major programmes

1. Cosmic ray studies at high altitude

2. Changing airspace environment in Eastern Himalayas

3. Children’s science resource centre

4. Manpower development – training programmes

Cosmic Ray studies

Electrons – electric cherge - EM force – Photon

Quarks - Colour Charge - Strong force – Gluon

Quark – three colours - Red , Blue , Green

Gluons – eight - red + anti-blue and other combinations

Mesons – quark+antiquark – colour+anticolour – WHITE

Baryons – three quarks – red+blue+green - WHITE

H- matter  P.T.  Q – matter

SQM  Ground state of matter

First idea : Bodmer (1971)

Resurrected : Witten (1984)

Stable SQM : Conflict with

experience ????

2-flavour energy > 3-flavour

Lowering due to extra Fermi well

Stable QM  3-flavour matter

Stable SQM  significant amount

s quarks

For nuclei  high order of weak

interaction to convert u & d to s

  • SQM & Strangelet Search :

  • SQM :

  • Early universe quark-hadron phase transition

  • Quark nugget  MACHO

  • 2. Compact stars (Core of Neutron Stars or Quark Stars)

  • Strangelets :

  • Heavy Ion Collision

  • Short time

  • Much smaller size A ~ 10-20

  • Stability Problem at high temperature

  • 2. Cosmic Ray events :

  • Collision of Strange stars or other strange objects Shower

Detection of strangelets

 Propagation mechanism of strangelets

 How far can it travel through atmosphere

How does it interact with atmosphere ?

Important observations

 Stability of strange matter

 Small positive charge  massive s quark  Z/A  1

  • Remarks :

     Detection of strangelets : Passive detectors

     Active detectors : Air shower studies in collaboration

Study of

Changing airspace environment

in Eastern Himalayas

Indo-Gangetic plane :

 Agricultural as well as Industrial activity

 Source of atmospheric pollutants

 Vulnerable place from changing environment

  • Himalaya is subject to

    (a) emissions from IGP regions

    (b) pollutants transported from long distances

  • Himalaya : Unique place to monitor airspace


Eastern Himalaya : wet with rich forest cover and

lesser population

Western Himalaya : dry, scanty forest cover and

high population

Monitoring stations :

Mostly in western Himalaya

Eastern Himalaya Monitoring stations

Pyramid Station

5034 meters


4200 meters

Kathmandu ICIMOD-UCSD Station


2500 meters

North Bengal University, Siliguri

Physical Environment

Chemical Environment

Monitoring of trans-boundary pollutants

H2O: mm waves

O3, CO, NOx, SO2: Trace Species

Aerosols: Scattering/ Absorbing

Met Data

3-D Trajectories

Eastern Himalayas

23.8 GHz (Water Vapour)

31.4 GHz (Liquid Water)

Distrometers (DSD)

Radio Environment

Emission Inventories

Air Pollutant Dispersal

3-D Chemical Modeling

Chemical, Physical, and Radio Mapping of the region

Project II-AI (IITM)

Atmospheric Chemistry-Aerosol-Climate Interaction

  • Objectives*To monitor physical, chemical and optical characteristics of aerosols under different air mass situations * To investigate the role of radiative forcing of aerosols in the climate system using experimental observations and model computations* To assess the influence of terrain / meteorological conditions on aerosol parameters

Project II-AII (NPL)

Chemical behaviour of aerosols, greenhouse gases, trajectory analysis and impact of particulate matter loading on human health

  • Objectives*To monitor greenhouse gases and pollutants for understanding trans-boundary flow * To investigate the chemical characteristics of aerosols and back trajectory analysis for source apportionment* To assess the impacts of particulate matter loading on human health

Expected outcome

  • Mass-size distribution of aerosols

  • Monthly, seasonal and diurnal variation of aerosol, trace and green house gas, partulate matter concentrations

  • Influence of meteorological parameters on air pollutants

  • Chemical composition of precipitation and aerosols

  • Impacts of aerosol loading on atmospheric radiative forcing

  • Trans-boundary flow of pollutants

  • Impact of pollutants on regional climate

  • Relation between atmospheric pollution loading and human health hazards

  • Various measurements, as mentioned below, will be undertaken. Continuous monitoring will take place at the Darjeeling site and measurements at Siliguri and Sandakphu will be made in campaign mode. These measurements at varying altitudes will provide some information about height profiles.

  • Atmospheric surface ozone

  • Columnar ozone (indirect)

  • Radiation measurements including UV radiation

  • Trace and Green House gases (NO2, SO2, NOx, SOx, CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O)

  • Physical and chemical characteristics of Aerosols (Scattering/absorbing) including carbonaceous aerosols

  • Precipitation chemistry

  • Biogenic organic particulate matter

  • Meteorological Parameters

Project II-B


  • IWV and LWP with a dual-frequency radiometer operating at 23.8 and 31.4 GHz.

  • Rain attenuation over earth-space paths by receiving satellite signals at Ku/Ka bands.

  • Rain rate with an optical rain-gauge

  • Rain drop size distribution with a Disdrometer.

    The following studies are proposed with the above-mentioned experimental measurements:

  • Variation of atmospheric water vapour, cloud liquid water content with time season, season, and their relationship with surface weather parameters, such as, temperature, relative humidity etc.

  • Modelling of cloud liquid water content and comparison of the derived model with the available global models.

  • To indicate the inter-relationship between IWP and LWP

  • To relate the rain attenuation over earth-space paths with the rain rate at the receiving site of satellite signal that will give an integrated picture of rain rate over the satellite path.

  • To relate rain DSD with radiometric observations during rain. Also, rain DSD will provide liquid water content in rain, which may be related with IWV and LWP. These integrated measurements will be used to study the interrelation among cloud liquid water, water vapour and rain at Darjeeling

Children’s Science Resource Centre

1. Formation of science clubs in schools

2. Train them to record local meteorological data

3. Once in a month meeting, recording of data taken

by students in the central data base

4. Train some of the interested students for cosmic ray


5. Introductory level lectures by scientists

Manpower development

Workshops and summer schools on various

aspects of the :

cosmic ray physics


Environmental science

Weather modeling studies

Numerical simulation

with hands-on training

Aimed at : Masters level and beginning doctoral


Thank You

Cosmic rays

Cosmic rays are high energy charged particles, originating in outer space, that travel at nearly the speed of light and strike the Earth from all directions.

Cosmic ray ions at the top of the energy range produce in the atmosphere showers of many millions of fragments, covering many acres, and their more energetic fragments register even in deep mines, a mile underground. back

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