World war ii 1939 1945
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World War II 1939-1945. Objectives… Define Fascism Describe how the fascist governments rose to power in Italy & Germany. Fascism A system of government characterized by a dictator , nationalism and militarism . Fasces

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World War II 1939-1945

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World War II1939-1945


  • Define Fascism

  • Describe how the fascist governments rose to power in Italy & Germany.

FascismA system of government characterized by a dictator, nationalism and militarism.


A Latin word referring to a bundle of sticks bound to the handle of an axe.

Characteristics of Fascism …

  • Fascist leaders look back in history to their past greatness…

  • Censorship- No government criticism of

  • Schools teach fascism

  • The individual exists to serve the state

  • Conflict…“War is the most noble goal of man”- Hitler

The characteristics of Fascism…

  • Look back in history to their past greatness

  • No criticism of the government Censorship

  • Schools teach fascism

  • The individual exists to serve the state

  • Conflict…“War is the most noble goal of man”- Hitler

4) Benito Mussolini

Mussolini’s rise to power…

  • Uses violence & murder

  • Appeals to people fearing Communism…“rabidly nationalistic”

  • Becomes “Il Duce”…

  • Promises Italian greatness

  • Suspends elections

  • Builds a modern military

Italy - Benito Mussolini- “Il Duce”

Mussolini Quotes…

“All within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.” “Democracy is beautiful in theory; in practice it is a fallacy.”“Fascism is a religion. The twentieth century will be known in history as the century of Fascism. ”

Hitler’s background…

  • Austrian born

  • High school drop out

  • Frustrated by failure as a young adult.

  • WWI corporal

  • Organizes the National Socialists Workers Party (1919)…

  • 1923 jailed for attempted overthrow of the German government

Mein Kampfor “My Struggle”


  • The “Master”/“Aryan Race” theory…

  • The Final Solution…

  • 6b) Lebensraum…


  • Democracy & communism

  • Religion (Christianity & Judaism)

  • The Treaty of Versailles

Hitler’s rise to power…

  • German government is weak…

  • Economic problems…

  • The Nazi Party is formed

  • Fear of Communists…

  • Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany…

  • The Reichstag burns…

  • Hitler declares himself “Fuhrer”…

The Reichstag FireJan. 30, 1933

The Third Reich

The term “Third Reich” is used to describe Hitler’s Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945.

“How fortunate for leaders that men do not think.”

- A. Hitler

Hitler strengthens his power…

  • “Scape-goating”…

  • Censorship

  • Assassination of his enemies

  • Political meetings

  • Propaganda

  • Book burning

The Nuremberg Rally(s)

German PropagandaPosters What messages are being conveyed?

Germany - Adolf Hitler - Der FuhrerThe most destructive leader in modern history.

Hitler Quotes…

“War is the most noble goal of man”“All propaganda has to be popular and has to accommodate itself to the comprehension of the least intelligent of those whom it seeks to reach.”“Any alliance whose purpose is not the intention to wage war is senseless and useless.” “Anyone who sees and paints a sky green and fields blue ought to be sterilized.”

7) Describe the policies & events exposing Hitler’s Germany as a racially & religiously intolerant regime.

  • 1933: Concentration camps

  • 1935: The Nuremberg Laws…

  • 1938: Kristallnacht– “The Night of Broken Glass”…

The Nuremberg LawsNazi Racial Legislation

  • Laws designed to…

    - Purify Germany

    - Define citizenship

    - Define the position of

    Jews in the Third Reich.

1938: Kristallnacht - "Night of Broken Glass"

  • Triggering event…Jewish teenager murders a German official in Paris

  • 1,000 Synagogues burned, businesses, cemeteries, hospitals, schools & homes looted & destroyed… 30,000 arrested


Identify and explain the events that force America to move away from isolationism & into WW II.

1) Roosevelt’s primary concern during the 1930s?…

2) What were the worldwide economic & political ramifications of the Great Depression?…

Think…What have you previously learned that supports US commitment to this policy?

What type of foreign policy did the US adopt after WW I?

  • Rejection of The Treaty of Versailles

  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact

  • Washington Naval Conference

Why did Americans favor isolationism prior to the start of WW II?...

8) How did each of the following influence the isolationist thinking prior to the outbreak of the war?

  • All Quiet on the Western Front

  • Nye Committee

  • College students

  • Norman Thomas

  • America First

Examples of Isolationism prior to WW II…

  • Rejected the Treaty of Versailles…

  • The Washington Conference (1921-22)…

  • Kellog-Briand Pact (1928)…

  • The message?

  • Can you identify the year this cartoon was published?

Pre- World War II Aggression

1931-32Japan invades Manchuria & Shanghai

American Response:

Diplomatic protest

No Action

1935Italy invades Ethiopia

American Response:

The Neutrality Acts are passed

The Neutrality Acts

  • Designed to keep the US out of war…

    • 1935: Banned war supplies

    • 1935: Forbid travel

    • 1936: Prohibited loans

    • 1937: Included the Spanish CW

    • 1939: “cash-and-carry”…

    • Replaced by “lend-lease” …

1936Germany rearms & sends troops into the Rhineland

American Response:

No action

1936 The Rome-Berlin Axis…

Supporting “parallel interests”

1937Japan begins full scale invasion of China* WW II officially starts in Asia

American Response:

Diplomatic protest

The Anschluss…


Germany & Austria unite – 6M Austrians are under German control

1938:The Anschluss

Poster issued after the Anschluss… The caption: "One People, One Reich, One Führer."

- Hitler charges that Czechs are “abusing Germans

1938: Hitler invades the Sudetenland.

1938:The Munich Pact or Appeasement Policy…

Hitler meets with French & British Prime Ministers… Agrees not to take more territory

British Prime MinisterNeville Chamberlainannounces “Peace in our time”

The Appeasement Policy

Symbolism?... Meaning?... Message?

1938American Response

FDR requests peaceful settlement

U.S. funds a two ocean navy

Signing the Two Ocean Navy

Expansion Act


-Germany invades Czechoslovakia & the Non Aggression Pact is signed…

Agreement between Germany & Russia that they will not attack each other & will divide Poland between them.

1940 The Tripartite Pact

Rome – Berlin –Tokyo Axis

Japanese & Italian emissaries with Hitler.

1939: Germany Invades Poland

Luftwaffe…. German air force …Very modern & powerful


Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium & France

  • WW II officially starts in Europe…

    - 11a) Blitzkrieg…

    - The Battle for Britain…


The name implies the rapid deployment of air power, mechanized cavalry and troops. – VERY FAST, VERY POWERFUL

1939 Blitzkrieg…

3) The aggressive actions taken by Japan in the 1930s that threaten stability in Asia…

5) The diplomatic policies & aggressive actions taken by Germany that threaten stability in Europe…

1939 American Response:

The Neutrality Acts are amended to “cash & carry”

1940 American Response:

11a) Selective Service Act…

Destroyers for Bases Deal…

11c)Lend-Lease Plan…


The invasion of the USSR

(or Operation Barbarosa)…

1942 Map of the Axis Powers

FDR: The Four Freedoms Speech…

Freedom From Fear

Freedom of


Freedom of


Freedom From


1941World Event: The Atlantic Charter…

13) The “common principles” that President Roosevelt &Prime Minister Churchill agreed to in the Atlantic Charter…

  • Free trade among all nations

  • No territorial seizures after the war

  • Self determination

  • Disarmament

  • The four freedoms… Freedom from fear & want, freedom of speech & worship

  • Most of the above are related to what previous topic?


Describe the U.S. response to the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Pearl Harbor

14) Identify the diplomatic & military events in 1940- 41 that foreshadow war between Japan & the US…

1941World Event:Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor is attacked

American Response:

Congress declares war Dec. 8, 1941

Sunday morning,

Dec. 7, 1941

Pearl Harbor

15) Japan’s overall objective for Asia?

16) Japan’s military objective for the attack on Pearl Harbor?

Pearl Harbor

From You Tube…

Pearl Harbor Day Attack

Documentary video clip: 8:45

Documentary video clip: 1:50

Pearl Harbor – Ford Island

The Pearl Harbor attack…

  • The largest surprise attack in history

  • 353 planes… Launched from 274 miles away

  • Two waves:

    1st : 7:53 AM -183 planes

    2nd: 8:40 AM -170 planes

Pearl HarborThe damages…

  • 2,400 dead

  • 1,200 wounded

  • 8 battleships

  • 3 destroyers

  • 3 cruisers

  • 188 planes

“I fear that all we have done is awaken a sleeping giant, and fill him witha terrible resolve."

- General Yamato of the Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese photo of the Pearl Harbor attack…




“I could see the men on Arizona walking on deck and burning alive. They had their helmets on. Their clothes were all seared off. They were a ghostly crew as they walked out of those flames. And then they just dropped dead”






USS NEVADA beached



Hickam Army Airfield

Arial photo USS Arizona Memorial

Pearl Harbor

From You Tube…

Pearl Harbor Day Attack

Documentary video clip: 8:45

FDR requests a declaration of war…

"Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan." - Franklin Roosevelt, Dec. 8, 1941

A Global War - Dec. 11, 1941

  • Germany & Italy declare war on the U.S.

  • Hitler declares war against the “half Judaized and the other half Negrified” America

  • The U.S. acknowledges a state of war

"...Every single man, woman, and child is partnerin the most tremendous undertaking of our history."- FDR

Map of the Axis Powers 1942

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