Battling imperfections in high index contrast systems from bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals
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Battling imperfections in high index-contrast systems – from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals. Maksim Skorobogatiy Génie Physique École Polytechnique de Montréal ( Université de Montréal) S. Jacobs, S.G. Johnson and Yoel Fink OmniGuide Communications & MIT.

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Battling imperfections in high index contrast systems from bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

Battling imperfections in high index-contrast systems – from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

Maksim Skorobogatiy

Génie Physique

École Polytechnique de Montréal (Université de Montréal)

S. Jacobs, S.G. Johnson and Yoel Fink

OmniGuide Communications & MIT

Presented at Photonics Europe, SPIE 2004


Coupled mode theory and perturbation formulations for high index contrast waveguides

Direction of propagation from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

x

z

y

Coupled Mode Theory and perturbation formulations for high-index contrast waveguides

  • Propagation of radiation through a waveguide of generic non-uniform high index-contrast dielectric profile

  • Standard perturbation formulation and coupled mode theory in a problem of high index-contrast waveguides with shifting dielectric boundaries generally fail as these methods do not correctly incorporate field discontinuities on the dielectric interfaces.

  • Other known methods that can solve the problem are:

  • Method of crossections (expansion into the instantaneous eigen modes). This method requires recalculation of the local eigen modes at each of the different crossesctions along the direction of propagation, and is computationally intensive.

  • Expansion into the eigen modes of a uniform waveguide with smooth dielectric profile (empty metallic waveguide f.e.). Convergence of this method with the number Nof expansion modes is slow (linear ~1/N).

  • Traditional FDTD, FETD are surprisingly difficult to use for analysis of small variations as one needs to resolve spatially such variations, and the effect of such variations is only observable after long propagation distances.


Method of perturbation matching

Perturbed fiber profile from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

Unperturbed fiber profile

rn

y

x

q

Method of perturbation matching

eo(r,q,s)

e(x,y,z)

mapping

  • Dielectric profile of an unperturbed fiber eo(r,q,s) can be mapped onto a perturbed dielectric profile e(x,y,z) via a coordinate transformation x(r,q,s), y(r,q,s), z(r,q,s).

  • Transforming Maxwell’s equation from Cartesian (x,y,z) onto curvilinear (r,q,s), coordinate system brings back an unperturbed dielectric profile, while adding additional terms to Maxwell’s equations due to unusual space curvature. These terms are small when perturbation is small, allowing for correct perturbative expansions.

  • Rewriting Maxwell’s equation in the curvilinear coordinates also defines an exact Coupled Mode Theory in terms of the coupled modes of an original unperturbed system.

F(r,q,s)

F(r(x,y,z),q(x,y,z),s(x,y,z))


Method of perturbation matching applications
Method of perturbation matching, applications from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

Static PMD due to profile distortions

b)

Scattering due to stochastic profile variations

a)

c)

Modal Reshaping by tapering and scattering (Δm=0)

T

d)

R

Inter-Modal Conversion (Δm≠0) by tapering and scattering

"Geometric variations in high index-contrast waveguides, coupled mode theory in curvilinear coordinates", M. Skorobogatiy, S.A. Jacobs, S.G. Johnson, and Y. Fink, Optics Express, vol. 10, pp. 1227-1243, 2002

"Dielectric profile variations in high-index-contrast waveguides, coupled mode theory, and perturbation expansions", M. Skorobogatiy, Steven G. Johnson, Steven A. Jacobs, and Yoel Fink, Physical Review E, vol. 67, p. 46613, 2003


High index contrast fiber tapers
High index-contrast fiber tapers from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

n=1.0

Convergence of scattering coefficients ~ 1/N2.5

When N>10 errors are less than 1%

Rs=6.05a

Rf=3.05a

n=3.0

L

Transmission properties of a high index-contrast non-adiabatic taper. Independent check with CAMFR.


High index contrast fiber bragg gratings
High index-contrast fiber Bragg from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystalsgratings

n=1.0

Convergence of scattering coefficients ~ 1/N1.5

When N>2 errors are less than 1%

3.05a

w

n=3.0

L

Transmission properties of a high index-contrast Bragg grating. Independent check with CAMFR.


Omniguide hollow core bragg fiber

HE from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals11

[2pc/a]

Zero dispersion

Very high dispersion

Low dispersion

[2p/a]

OmniGuide hollow core Bragg fiber


Pmd of dispersion compensating bragg fibers

r from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

y

q

x

PMD of dispersion compensating Bragg fibers

"Analysis of general geometric scaling perturbations in a transmitting waveguide. The fundamental connection between polarization mode dispersion and group-velocity dispersion", M. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, S.G. Johnson, O. Weiseberg, T.D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S.A. Jacobs, and Y. Fink, Journal of Optical Society of America B, vol. 19, pp. 2867-2875, 2002


ps/nm/km from Bragg fibers to planar photonic crystals

Iterative design of low PMD dispersion compensating Bragg fibers

  • Find Dispersion

  • Find PMD

  • Adjust Bragg mirror layer thicknesses to:

    • Favour large negative

    • dispersion at 1.55mm

    • Decrease PMD


Method of perturbation matching in application to the planar photonic crystal waveguides
Method of perturbation matching in application to the planar photonic crystal waveguides

Uniform perturbed waveguide (eigen problem)

Uniform unperturbed waveguide

Using the guided and evanescent modes of an unperturbed PxTal waveguide to predict eigen modes or scattering coefficients for a perturbed PxTal waveguide

Nonuniform perturbed waveguide (scattering problem)


Defining coordinate mapping in 2d
Defining coordinate mapping in 2D photonic crystal waveguides




Transmission through long tapers
Transmission crystal waveguidesthrough long tapers





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