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Basic Concepts in Disaster Management Dr. Qudsia Huda Emergency Preparedness and Humanitarian Action WHO EMRO






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Basic Concepts in Disaster Management Dr. Qudsia Huda Emergency Preparedness and Humanitarian Action WHO EMRO. First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management 12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman. Why Basic Concepts Important?.
Basic Concepts in Disaster Management Dr. Qudsia Huda Emergency Preparedness and Humanitarian Action WHO EMRO

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Slide 1

Basic Concepts in Disaster ManagementDr. Qudsia HudaEmergency Preparedness and Humanitarian ActionWHO EMRO

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 2

Why Basic Concepts Important?

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 3

Definition vs Concepts

Being defined

vs

an idea of something formed by

mentally combining all its characteristics

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 4

GlobalizationWebster Dictionary 1931 Globe, Global 1951 Globalization the state of being globalizedthe development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 5

Princess Diana’s Death

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 6

An English princess with an Egyptian boyfriend crashes in a French tunnel, riding in a German car with a Dutch engine, driven by a Belgian who was drunk on Scottish whisky, followed closely by Italian Paparazzi, on Japanese motorcycles, treated by an American doctor, using Brazilian medicines. This is sent to you by a Candian, using American Bill Gates' technology, and you're probably reading this on your computer, that uses Taiwanese chips, and a Korean monitor, assembled by Bangladeshi workers in a Singapore plant, transported by Indian truck drivers, hijacked by Indonesians, unloaded by Sicilian longshoremen, and trucked to you by Mexican illegals.....That, my friend, is Globalization !

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 7

  • A sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action

    Is any actual crisis affecting public health and safety that needs immediate attention.

Health

Emergency

Slide 8

  • I can’t find my mobile phone

  • My son hasn’t come home from school

  • A man is having a heart attack

  • A plane has crashed

  • Gas is leaking from a factory

  • Cholera outbreak in Haiti

  • An earthquake in China

  • Earthquake in New Zealand

  • Tsunami in Japan (??)

Examples

Slide 9

China Earthquake

  • find and rescue victims

  • evacuate victims to safe place

  • provide first aid and medical transport

  • treat the injured

  • provide shelter, sanitation, food and water

  • care for the dead and manage the missing

  • establish security

  • re-establish the lifelines (water, power, phone)

  • plan and pay for recovery and reconstruction

Slide 10

Disaster

A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses and impacts, which exceeds the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.

  • An act that has disastrous consequences.

Slide 11

  • Bam earthquake

  • Indian ocean tsunami

  • South Asian earthquake

  • Conflict in Gaza

  • Flood is Pakistan

  • Earthquake in Haiti

Examples

Slide 12

All disasters are emergencies

but

not all emergencies are disasters

Slide 13

A humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/ or the ongoing United Nations country program

Complex Emergency

Slide 14

  • extensive violence and loss of life;

  • massive displacements of people;

  • widespread damage to societies and economies

  • the need for large-scale, multi-faceted humanitarian

    assistance  

  • the hindrance or prevention of humanitarian assistance

    by political and military constraints  

  • significant security risks for humanitarian relief workers

    in some areas

Complex Emergency

Slide 15

  • Sudan

  • Somalia

  • Some countries in Sub Saharan Africa

  • Afghanistan

  • …….

Complex Emergency

Slide 16

  • A source of danger

    A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.

Hazard

Slide 17

Examples

  • Earthquakes

  • Floods

  • Cyclones

  • Tsunami

  • Volcanoes

  • Civil unrest

  • Chemicals

  • Drought

  • Famine

  • Conflict

  • Epidemic

  • Pandemic

  • Wildfire

  • Road Traffic Accident

Slide 18

  • Man Made

  • Natural

  • Hydrological

  • Technological

  • Chemical

  • Biological

Types of Hazards

Slide 19

Community

consists of 5elements

  • the people

  • their property

  • their services

  • their livelihoods

  • their environment

A community is best defined as a group of people who, regardless of the diversity of their backgrounds, have been able to accept and transcend their differences, enabling them to communicate effectively and openly and to work together toward goals identified as being for their common good.

Slide 20

Why community is important?

‘First Responder’

Interaction with Hazard

Have weakness to suffer

Have strength to withstand

Slide 21

Risks

The combination of the probability of an event and its negative consequences.

the potential consequences of exposure to a hazard

Slide 22

  • dead and missing;

  • injury (mental and physical);

  • disease (mental and physical);

  • secondary hazards (fire,

    disease etc.);

  • contamination;

  • displacement;

  • breakdown in security;

  • damage to infrastructure;

  • breakdown in essential

    services.

  • loss of property;

  • loss of income …

Examples

Slide 23

The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the damaging effects of a hazard exposing to risks.

Vulnerabilities

Slide 24

  • Access to health care

  • Measles vaccination low coverage rate

  • Lack of access to safe water

  • Lack of access to sanitation

  • Unsafe infrastructure

  • Poverty

  • Illiteracy

  • Unskilled health workforce

  • Environmental degradation

Examples

Slide 25

The combination of all the strengths, attributes and resources available within a community, society or organization that can be used to achieve agreed goals.

Ability of coping and responding to reduce loss

Capacities

Slide 26

  • Training

  • Guidelines

  • Plan

  • Policy

  • Partnership

  • Resources

  • Risk Maps

  • Assessments

  • NCPHEM

Capacities

Slide 27

The knowledge and capacities developed by governments, professional response and recovery organizations, communities and individuals to effectively anticipate, respond to, and recover from, the impacts of likely, imminent or current hazard events or conditions.

Preparedness

Process of building capacity

Slide 28

Response

The provision of emergency services and public assistance during or immediately after a disaster in order to save lives, reduce health impacts, ensure public safety and meet the basic subsistence needs of the people affected.

Slide 29

Recovery

The restoration, and improvement where appropriate, of facilities, livelihoods and living conditions of disaster-affected communities, including efforts to reduce disaster risk factors.

Building Back Better

Slide 30

Early Warning System

The set of capacities needed to generate and disseminate timely and meaningful warning information to enable individuals, communities and organizations threatened by a hazard to prepare and to act appropriately and in sufficient time to reduce the possibility of harm or loss.

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 31

Exercise!!

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman

Slide 32

Thank you

First National Course on Public Health Emergency Management

12 – 23 March 2011. Muscat, Oman


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