The home front
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The Home Front . 2-8-2013 . The Home Front . Unity requirement for success America in 1917 was not unified Racial system Middle class wary of labor organizations and big business Women’s views Government chose several approaches Directed massive propaganda at the American people

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The Home Front

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The home front

The Home Front

2-8-2013


The home front1

The Home Front

  • Unity requirement for success

    • America in 1917 was not unified

      • Racial system

      • Middle class wary of labor organizations and big business

      • Women’s views

  • Government chose several approaches

    • Directed massive propaganda at the American people

    • Imprisoned those who openly challenged its war policies

    • “Engines of indirection”

      • Encourage Americans to pay for the war

      • Rewards for those who cooperated

    • Wartime Welfare state that benefited millitons


The home front2

The Home Front

  • Protect the nation and make money

    • Self-sacrifice, idealism and patriotism coincided with private gain

      • Private gain through: government management of interest groups, manipulation of government control

      • Committee on Public Information (CPI)

        • Lead: journalist, socialist George Creel

          • Push Americans into one frame of mind “one white-hot mass”

          • Had educators explain to students the official reasons for fighting

        • Indirect approach

          • American Alliance for Labor and Democracy

            • Samuel Gompers (labor union leader)

              • Telling facts, which were disguised propaganda

                • Themes

                  • Subhuman monsters, holy war for democracy, Americans must stand together


The home front3

The Home Front

  • Force

    • Espionage Act 1917, Sedition Act 1918

      • Denied mailing of publication deemed harmful

      • Jailed those who were against the war

        • Eugene Debs and the Wobblies

        • =Schenck v. United States

    • CPI urged editors to censor themselves or face penalties

    • Volunteer Members

      • American Protective League

        • Sought to root out opponents to the war

        • People spied on one another intimidated

        • Liberty Bonds

  • Benefits

    • Food Administration

      • Volunteers, conservation

    • War Industries Board

      • Produce voluntarily what the government wanted them to produce

      • Priority system, you make what we want, we’ll help you first (supplies)

      • Steel industry

    • Corporate leaders

      • Industrial mobilization in the government’s name

  • Intellectuals

    • Lecturing across the country


Change the german

Change the “German”

  • Attacked the German American subculture

    • Frankfurters- liberty sausages

    • Dachshunds – liberty dogs

  • Outgrowth of patriotism


Women and african americans

Women and African Americans

  • Special Interest

    • Points of view

    • Women’s Peace Party

    • Temperance

      • Alcohol took grain supplies

    • Cheap life insurance

  • Du Bois

    • First believed fighting overseas would advance racial equality at home


Result and aftermath

Result and aftermath

  • Not as connected as thought

    • Production not as high

    • Some resistance to the draft

    • American military- the size biggest effect on the end of the war

  • After WWI

    • Business, and self- regulation

    • Create unity

    • Defend without loosing American freedoms?

      • Patriot Act


The great migration

The Great Migration

  • Movement of the African Americans from a predominantly rural population to a predominantly urban population.

    • The South after the war did not change the status of black southerners.

    • Pull of opportunities in the North.

      • Wages

      • Yet, more blacks migrated to southern cities between 1900 and 1920 than to northern ones.

  • Migration clubs, who pooled their resources

    • Black kin and friendship networks

  • Black Industrial working class emerged

    • Still entered the industrial economy at the lowest level

    • Still had class restrictions

    • Riots to gain rights in jobs, locations to live, increased knowledge of the “race question” across the United States

  • Created culture, churches, social clubs, new businesses

    • “New Negro” movement of WWI

    • NAACP

  • Challenged the nation’s status quo

    • From The Great Migration, Joe William Trotter Jr. Magazine of History, 2002


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