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Mobile IP. Mobile networking should not be confused with portable networking Portable networking requires connection to same ISP Portable Networking Technology Cellular systems Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) 3G Bluetooth Low cost, short range radio links between mobile devices

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Mobile ip

  • Mobile networking should not be confused with portable networking

    • Portable networking requires connection to same ISP

  • Portable Networking Technology

    • Cellular systems

      • Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD)

      • 3G

    • Bluetooth

      • Low cost, short range radio links between mobile devices

    • Wireless Ethernet (802.11)


Mobile networking
Mobile networking

  • IP assumes end hosts are in fixed physical locations

    • IP addresses enable IP routing algorithms to get packets to the correct network

    • Each IP address has network part and host part

      • This keeps host specific information out of routers

    • DHCP is used to get packets to end hosts in networks

      • This still assumes a fixed end host

  • What happens if we move a host between networks?


Mobile ip

IP address A

Internet

IP address B


Mobile ip

  • Mobile IP was developed as a means for transparently dealing with problems of mobile users

    • Enables hosts to stay connected to the Internet regardless of their location

    • Enables hosts to be tracked without needing to change their IP address

    • Requires no changes to software of non-mobile hosts/routers

    • Requires addition of some infrastructure

    • Has no geographical limitations

    • Requires no modifications to IP addresses or IP address format

    • Supports security

    • Could be even more important than physically connected routing


Mobile ip and its variants
Mobile IP and its Variants with problems of mobile users

  • Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4)

    • MIPv4

    • Low-Latency Handover for MIPv4 (FMIPv4)

    • Regional Registration for MIPv4 (HMIPv4)

  • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)

    • MIPv6

    • Fast Handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6)

    • Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6)


Ietf rfcs
IETF RFCs with problems of mobile users

  • MIP

    • MIPv4: RFC 3344 (2002)

    • MIPv6: RFC 3775 (2004)

  • FMIP (Fast Handover for MIP

    • FMIPv6: RFC 4068 (2005)

      • Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6

    • FMIPv4: RFC 4881 (2007)

      • Low-Latency Handoffs in Mobile IPv4

  • HMIP (Hierarchical MIP)

    • HMIPv6: RFC 4140 (2005)

      • Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    • HMIPv4: RFC 4857 (2007)

      • Mobile IPv4 Regional Registration


Mipv4 overview
MIPv4: Overview with problems of mobile users

  • MIPv4 Nodes

    • MN (Mobile Node): Host

    • CN (Correspondent Node): Host

    • HA (Home Agent): Router

    • FA (Foreign Agent): Router

  • MIPv4 Address

    • HoA (Home Address): MN

    • CoA (Care-of-Address): FA


Home address hoa and care of address coa
Home Address ( with problems of mobile usersHoA) and Care-of Address (CoA)

14.13.16.9 Care-of address

131.5.24.8 Home address

  • The home address is permanent

  • The care-of address changes as the mobile host moves from one network to another.


Mobile ip

  • Home Agent (HA) with problems of mobile users

    • A router with additional functionality

    • Located on home network of MN

    • Does mobility binding of MN’s IP with its CoA

    • Forwards packets to appropriate network when MN is away

    • Does this through encapsulation

  • Foreign Agent (FA)

    • Another router with enhanced functionality

    • If MN is away from HA the it uses an FA to send/receive data to/from HA

    • Advertises itself periodically

    • Forward’s MN’s registration request

    • Decapsulates messages for delivery to MN


Protocols operation
Protocols Operation with problems of mobile users

  • Agent Discovery (MN  FA (CoA))

  • HA’s and FA’s broadcast their presence on each network to which they are attached

    • It is possible for a mobile node to solicit agent advertisement to avoid waiting for an agent to advertise.

  • Beacon messages via ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP)

  • MN’s listen for advertisement and then initiate registration

  • Registration to HA (via FA) (MN  FA  HA)

  • When MN is away, it registers its CoA with its HA

  • Typically through the FA with strongest signal

  • Registration control messages are sent via UDP to destination port 434

  • Data Transfer Through Tunneling

    • CN => HA (HoA) => FA (CoA) => MN

    • IP-in-IP Tunneling, ..


  • Mipv4 control data flows
    MIPv4: Control & Data Flows with problems of mobile users

    (Maintain “Visitor list”)

    (Maintain Mobility Binding Table)

    Mobile IP does not use a new packet type for agent solicitation;

    it uses the router solicitation packet of ICMP.


    Tables maintained on routers
    Tables maintained on routers with problems of mobile users

    • Mobility Binding Table

      • Maintained on HA of MN

      • Maps MN’s home address with its current CoA

    • Visitor List

      • Maintained on FA serving an MN

      • Maps MN’s home address to its MAC address and HA address


    Agent advertisement
    Agent advertisement with problems of mobile users

    • MIP does not use a new packet type for agent advertisement;

      • it uses the router advertisement packet of ICMP, and

      • appends an agent advertisement message.


    Mobile ip

    Registration request and reply with problems of mobile users


    Mobile ip

    Registration request format with problems of mobile users


    Mobile ip

    Registration reply format with problems of mobile users


    The tunneling
    The Tunneling with problems of mobile users

    • HA encapsulates all packets addressed to MN and forwards them to FA

      • IP tunneling

    • FA decapsulates all packets addressed to MN and forwards them via hardware address (learned as part of registration process)

    • NOTE that the MN can perform FA functions if it acquires an IP address eg. via DHCP

    • Bidirectional communications require tunneling in each direction


    Mobile ip

    • The Mobile Node sends packets using its home IP with problems of mobile usersaddress

      • effectively maintaining the appearance that it is always on its home network.

    • Data packets addressed to the Mobile Node are routed to its home network, where the Home Agent now intercepts and tunnels them to the care-of address toward the Mobile Node.

    • Tunneling has two primary functions: encapsulation of the data packet to reach the tunnel endpoint, and decapsulation when the packet is delivered at that endpoint.

    • The default tunnel mode is IP Encapsulation within IP Encapsulation

    • Typically, the Mobile Node sends packets to the Foreign Agent, which routes them to their final destination, the Correspondent Node

    • The above data path is topologically incorrect because it does not reflect the true IP network source for the data—rather, it reflects the home network of the Mobile Node.

    • Because the packets show the home network as their source inside a foreign network, an access control list on routers in the network called ingress filtering drops the packets instead of forwarding them.


    Mobile ip


    Mobile ip

    Mobile node with problems of mobile users (MN)

    Mobile IP in Action

    CN is successfully communicating with MN via HA

    Mobility Binding table

    Correspondent node (CN)

    HA Looks binding table

    Home Address = A

    Home Agent (HA)

    1.MNsendsRegistration request with its new CoA

    2.Mobile binding created for MN with new CoA

    3.MNsendsRegistration response, after validating request and

    updating binding table

    Remote Agent (RA)

    4.Packets sent toMNfromCNare tunneled toRA using binding table

    CoA = B

    Mobile Node moves to remote network


    Mobile ip

    Key Objective of MIP with problems of mobile users

    The movement of the mobile host

    is transparent to

    the rest of the Internet.


    Mobile ipv6 mipv6
    Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) with problems of mobile users

    • MIPv6 = MIPv4 + IPv6

    • Major Differences from MIPv4

      • FA in MN

        • No FA for MIPv6

      • CoA: IP address of MN

        • By DHCPv6 or IPv6 Stateless Auto-Configuration

      • Route Optimization

        • To solve the “Triangular Routing” Problem

        • Provided by default

        • MN  CN


    Mip triangular routing problem
    MIP: Triangular Routing Problem with problems of mobile users


    Mipv6 route optimization
    MIPv6: Route Optimization with problems of mobile users


    Mipv6 binding update
    MIPv6: Binding Update with problems of mobile users

    • Binding Update to HA

      • Using IPSEC: MN and HA have a security association

        • AH (Authentication Header)

        • ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload)

    • Binding Update to CN

      • Return Routability (RR) procedure

        • For Security

      • Binding Update (BU) procedure

        • Route Optimization


    Mipv6 binding update1
    MIPv6: Binding Update with problems of mobile users


    Mipv6 rr return routability
    MIPv6: RR (Return Routability) with problems of mobile users


    Mipv6 changes to ipv6
    MIPv6: Changes to IPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • New IPv6 Protocol (Header)

      • Mobility Header: a new IPv6 extension header

        • To carry MIPv6 Binding Update messages

        • How is in the MIPv4 ?

      • New Option in Destination Option Header

        • Home Address Option

      • New Type in Routing Header

        • Type 2 Routing Header

    • New ICMP Messages

      • ICMP HA Address Discovery Request/Reply

      • ICMP Mobile Prefix Solicitation/ Advertisement


    Mipv6 ipv6 header
    MIPv6: IPv6 Header with problems of mobile users


    Mipv6 mobility header
    MIPv6: Mobility Header with problems of mobile users

    • A New Extension Header of IPv6

      • Messages for Return Routability

        • Home Test Init Message

        • Care-of Test Init Message

        • Home Test Message

        • Care-of Test Message

      • Messages for Binding Update

        • Binding Update Message

        • Binding Acknowledgement Message

        • Binding Error Message

        • Binding Refresh Request Message


    Mip extensions
    MIP Extensions with problems of mobile users

    • Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4)

      • Low-Latency Handover for MIPv4 (FMIPv4)

      • Regional Registration for MIPv4 (HMIPv4)

    • Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6)

      • Fast Handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6)

      • Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6)


    Fmipv6 fast handover for mipv6
    FMIPv6: Fast Handover for MIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    CN

    PAR

    NAR

    signaling

    signaling

    MN


    Fmipv6 operations
    FMIPv6: Operations with problems of mobile users

    • Handover Initiation

      • L2 Triggers, RtSolPr, PrRtAdv

      • Between MN and AR

    • Tunnel Establishment

      • HI (Handover Initiate) and HACK

      • Between PAR and NAR

    • Packet Forwarding

      • PAR => NAR (data buffering at NAR)

        • FBU, FBack

      • NAR => MN:

        • FNA (Fast NA)


    Fmipv6 operational flows
    FMIPv6: Operational Flows with problems of mobile users


    Hmipv6 overview
    HMIPv6: Overview with problems of mobile users

    • Motivations

      • Localized (Regional) Mobility Management

      • Hierarchical

        • MIP: MN  HA

        • HMIP: MN  MAP  HA

          • MAP: Mobility Anchor Point

    • IP Address (CoA)

      • RCoA (Regional CoA): in the MAP region

      • LCoA (On-Link CoA): in the AR region


    Hmipv6 architecture
    HMIPv6: Architecture with problems of mobile users

    HA

    CN

    MAP

    RCoA

    AR2

    AR1

    LCoA_2

    LCoA_1

    Movement

    MN


    Hmipv6 operations
    HMIPv6: Operations with problems of mobile users

    • MN

      • When entering an AR region in the MAP domain,

        • it gets LCoA (AR region) and RCoA (MAP region)

        • RCoA does not change in the MAP domain

      • Local Binding Update (LBU) to MAP

        • Bind LCoA & RCoA to MAP

    • MAP (Acting as a local HA)

      • Only the RCoA need to be registered with CN/HA

      • Relay all packets between MN and HA/CN


    Hmipv6 map tunnel map mn
    HMIPv6: MAP Tunnel (MAP with problems of mobile users MN)

    HA

    CN

    MAP

    AR2

    AR1

    MN

    Outer header

    Inner header

    MAP

    RCoA

    CN

    Home Addr

    LCoA


    Mip in real world 3gpp2 cdma
    MIP in Real World: 3GPP2 (CDMA) with problems of mobile users


    Mip in 3gpp2
    MIP in 3GPP2 with problems of mobile users


    Proxy mipv6 pmipv6

    Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6) with problems of mobile users

    “Network-based” Localized Mobility Management


    Why network based
    Why Network-based? with problems of mobile users

    • Host-based MIPv4/v6 has not been yet deployed that much.

      • Why host-based MIP is not deployed yet?

        • Too heavy specification for a small terminal

          • RFC 3344 (MIPv4): 99 pages

          • RFC 3775 (MIPv6): 165 pages

        • Battery problem

        • Waste of air resource

      • No Stable MIPv4/v6 stack executed in Microsoft Windows OS


    Pmipv6
    PMIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • IETF NETLMM WG

    • Internet Draft

      • “Proxy Mobile IPv6,”

      • draft-ietf-netlmm-proxymip6-00.txt (2007)

    • GOAL

      • This protocol is for providing mobility support to any IPv6 host within a restricted and topologically localized portion of the network and without requiring the host to participate in any mobility related signaling.


    Technical background
    Technical Background with problems of mobile users

    • Host-based vs. Network-based Mobility

    HA

    HA

    Route Update

    Route Update

    AR

    AR

    Movement

    Movement

    Network-based Mobility

    Host-based Mobility


    Proxy mipv6 overview
    Proxy MIPv6 Overview with problems of mobile users

    LMA: Localized Mobility AgentMAG: Mobile Access Gateway

    IP Tunnel

    A IPinIP tunnel LMA and MAG.

    LMA

    Home NetworkMN’s Home Network (Topological Anchor Point)

    MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP)

    CAFE:1:/64

    MAG1

    Host A

    LMA Address (LMAA)

    That will be the tunnel entry-point.

    LMM (Localized Mobility Management)Domain

    MAG2

    MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP)

    CAFE:2:/64

    Proxy Binding Update (PBU)

    Control message sent out by MAG to LMA to register its correct location

    Host B

    MN Home Address (MN-HoA)

    MN continues to use it as long as it roams within a same domain

    Proxy Care of Address (Proxy-CoA)

    The address of MAG. That will be the tunnel end-point.


    Proxy mipv6 overview1
    Proxy MIPv6 Overview with problems of mobile users

    • No host stack change for IP mobility

    • Avoiding tunneling overhead over the air

    • Re-use of Mobile IPv6

      • PMIPv6 is based on Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775]

    • Only supports Per-MN-Prefix model

      • Unique home network prefix assigned for each MN.

      • The prefix follows the MN.


    Proxy mipv6 overview2
    Proxy MIPv6 Overview with problems of mobile users

    • Overall Procedures

      • MN moves and attaches to an access router

      • After authentication, MAG (access router) identifies MN

      • MAG obtains MN’s profile containing the Home Address ..etc

      • MAG sends the Proxy Binding Update to LMA on behalf of MN

      • MAG receives the Proxy Binding Ack. from LMA

      • MAG sends Router Advertisements containing MN’s home network prefix

        • Stateless Case: MN will still configure (or maintain) the same as its home address.

        • Stateful Case: the network will ensure that it always gets its home address.


    Proxy mipv6 overview3
    Proxy MIPv6 Overview with problems of mobile users

    In case that profile store does not have MN Home Prefix

    MAG emulates the MN’s home link

    Tunnel Setup

    This can be omitted when stateless configuration is used.


    Proxy mipv6
    Proxy MIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • Proxy Registration

      • LMA needs to understand the Proxy Registration.

    Proxy Binding Update

    Proxy Binding Acknowledgement


    Proxy mipv61
    Proxy MIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • Tunnel Management

      • LMA-MAG tunnel is a shared tunnel among many MNs.

        • 1:1 relation  m:1 relation

        • One tunnel is associated to multiple MNs’ Binding Caches.

        • Life-time of a tunnel should not be dependent on the life time of any single BCE.

    • LMA’s Prefix-based Routing

      • LMA will add prefix routes to MN’s home network prefix over the tunnel.


    Proxy mipv62
    Proxy MIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • MAG Operation

      • It emulates the home link for eachMN.

      • After the access authentication, MAG will obtain MN’s profile which contains:

        • MN’s home address

        • MN’s home network prefix

        • LMA address ..etc.

      • It establishes a IPv6/IPv6 tunnel with the LMA.

        • All the packets from MN are reverse tunneled to its LMA

        • All the packets from the tunnel are routed to MN.

    • Router Advertisement should be UNICASTed to an MN

      • It will contain MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP)


    Proxy mipv63
    Proxy MIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • MN Operation

      • Any MN is just a IPv6 host with its protocol operation consistent with the base IPv6 specification.

        • All aspects of Neighbor Discovery Protocol will not change.

      • When MN attaches to a new AR, it receives a Router Advertisement message from the AR with its home prefix.

      • Throughout the PMIP domain, MN using DHCP procedure or in stateless address configuration mode, will obtain the same home address.


    Proxy mipv64
    Proxy MIPv6 with problems of mobile users

    • Data Transport

      • LMA-MAG Tunneling/Reverse Tunneling

    MAG

    CN

    MN

    LMA

    MN sends a packet to CN

    MAG forwards to LMA

    LMA sends to CN

    CN sends packet to MN

    LMA forwards to MAG

    MAG sends to MN

    IPv6 header (src=LMA_ADDR, dst=MAG_ADDR)

    IPv6 header (src=CN_ADDR, dst=MN_ADDR)

    Paylaod

    IPv6 header (src=MAG_ADDR, dst=LMA_ADDR)

    IPv6 header (src=MN_ADDR, dst=CN_ADDR)

    Payload


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