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ECONOMICS. Chapter 4 The Market Strikes Back. S. P. P. D. Quantity. Quantity. Review: Supply and Demand. The previous lesson focused on demand and supply, we studied the demand curve and the supply curve…. …and the market equilibrium:. S. P. Peq. D. Qeq. Quantity.

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Economics

ECONOMICS

Chapter 4

The Market Strikes Back


Review supply and demand

S

P

P

D

Quantity

Quantity

Review: Supply and Demand

  • The previous lesson focused on demand and supply, we studied the demand curve and the supply curve…


Review supply and demand1

…and the market equilibrium:

S

P

Peq

D

Qeq

Quantity

Review: Supply and Demand


What we will learn in this chapter

The meaning of price controls and quantity controls, two kinds of government intervention in markets

➤ How price and quantity controls create problems and make a market inefficient

➤ Why economists are often deeply skeptical of attempts to intervene in markets

➤ Who benefits and who loses from market interventions, and why they are used despite their well- known problems

➤ What an excise tax is and why its effect is similar to a quantity control

➤ Why the deadweight loss of a tax means that its true cost is more than the amount of tax revenue collected

What we will learn in this chapter


Price controls

Price controls are legal restrictions on how high or low a market price may go.

2 kinds of price controls:

Price Ceilings: a maximum price sellers are allowed to charge for a good.It’s an upper limit for the price.

Price Floors: a minimum price buyers are required to pay for a good.I’ts a lower limit for the price.

Price controls


Price controls1

Why Price controls?

During crisis times, emergencies or wars the government wants to protect the consumers from rapidly increasing prices.

If the equilibrium wage given by supply and demand for low skilled workers is below poverty level, the government can set a minimum wage.

Price controls


Price controls price ceilings

Equilibrium

Price ceiling

Price

Price

S

S

D

D

4

4

3

3

Price Ceiling

2

2

Shortage

100

800

Quantity of icecreams

Quantity of icecreams

200

200

100

Price controls: price ceilings



Price controls price ceilings1

Because of these ceilings, we are faced with a shortage.

The shortage will lead to inefficiencies:

A market or an economy is inefficient if there are missed opportunities: some people could be made better off without making other people worse off.

Price controls: price ceilings


Price controls price ceilings2

Let’s take a look at the different possible inefficiencies:

Inefficient Allocation to Consumers

Wasted Resources

Inefficiently Low Quality

Black Markets

Price controls: price ceilings


Price controls price ceilings3

Inefficient Allocation to Consumers inefficiencies:

Price ceilings can lead to inefficiency in the form of inefficient allocation to consumers: people who really want the good and are willing to pay a high price don’t get it, and those who are not so interested in the good and are only willing to pay a low price do get it.

Example: rent control. In such case people get the appartment usually through luck or personal connections.

Price controls: price ceilings


Price controls price ceilings4

Wasted Resources inefficiencies:

Price ceilings typically lead to inefficiency in the form of wasted resources: people spend money, time and expend effort in order to deal with the shortages caused by the price ceiling.

You waste a lot of time looking for a good (e.g. an appartment) in case of shortage, the time has it’s value! You can work or just rest, do something better than look for a good you’ can’t find.

Price controls: price ceilings


Price controls price ceilings5

Inefficiently Low Quality inefficiencies:

Price ceilings often lead to inefficiency in that the goods being offered are of inefficiently low quality

In case of rent controls, the landlords will not improve the conditions of the appartments, there is no incentive since the rental fee is low but the main reason is that since there is a shortage, people are willing to rent the apartment as it is, even in bad condition!

Price controls: price ceilings


Price controls price ceilings6

Black Markets inefficiencies:

A black market is a market in which goods or services are bought and sold illegally—either because it is illegal to sell them at all or because the prices charged are legally prohibited by a price ceiling.

If someone for example bribes (gives extra money) to the apartment owners he will get the apartment, but the honest people that don’t break the law will never find one this way!

Price controls: price ceilings


Price controls price floors

Price Floors inefficiencies:: a minimum price buyers are required to pay for a good.I’ts a lower limit for the price.

The minimum wage is a legal floor on the wage rate, which is the market price of labor.

Price controls: price floors


Price controls price floors1

Equilibrium inefficiencies:

Price floor

Price

Price

Surplus

S

S

D

D

4

4

3

3

Price Ceiling

2

2

100

Quantity of icecreams

Quantity of icecreams

200

200

100

600

Price controls: price floors


Price controls price floors2

Why a Price Floor Causes Inefficiency inefficiencies:

Inefficient Allocation of Sales Among Sellers

Price floors lead to inefficient allocation of sales among sellers: those who would be willing to sell the good at the lowest price are not always those who actually manage to sell it. Example: Farm Subsidies

Wasted Resources

Like a price ceiling, a price floor generates inefficiency by wasting resources.

Price controls: price floors


Subsidies
Subsidies inefficiencies:

  • The United States subsidizes certain industries like farming

  • Subsidies are a form of financial assistance paid to a business or economic sector. Most subsidies are made by the government to producers or distributors in an industry to prevent the decline of that industry


Price controls price floors3

Inefficiently High Quality and Quantity inefficiencies:

Price floors often lead to inefficiency in that goods of inefficiently high quality are offered: sellers offer high-quality goods at a high price, even though buyers would prefer a lower quality at a lower price.

Or the seller offers more quantity than is demanded and we are left with a surplus

Price controls: price floors


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