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Chapter 5. By Coach Murray. Sponges – Filters of the Sea (5-30). Phylum Porifera – 10,000 species mistaken for plants, heterotrophs , up to 16 ft wide, filter 20 x volume in 1 min., secrete mucus to avoid clogging

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

By Coach Murray


Sponges filters of the sea 5 30

Sponges – Filters of the Sea (5-30)

  • Phylum Porifera – 10,000 species mistaken for plants, heterotrophs, up to 16 ft wide, filter 20 x volume in 1 min., secrete mucus to avoid clogging

  • Multicelluar: collar cels (move H2O), amoebocyte (absorb/distribute nutrients), osculum (or oscula),


Sponges filters of the sea 5 301

Sponges – Filters of the Sea (5-30)

  • Special Attributes of Sponges

    • Larvae are free swimming and attach themselves to reef/structures and begin growing into adults

    • Defense: needlelike spicules (Fig 5-30 in green) made of glass/calcium or some secrete toxic chemicals

    • Can regenerate


Coral anemones sea fans and jellyfish 5 33

Coral, Anemones, Sea Fans, and Jellyfish (5-33)

  • PhyllumCnidaria – soft/hard corals, sea anemones, hydroids, sea fans, and jellyfish

    • Radial symmetry, umbrella shaped body polyp or medusa (tentacles/mouth facing up or down)

    • Nematocysts – stinging cells on tentacles


Examples of cnidarians

Examples of Cnidarians


Cnidarian anatomy

Cnidarian Anatomy


Speical attributes of corals and anemones

Speical Attributes of Corals and Anemones

  • Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa – 6000 species of sessile polyps (corals and anemones)

    • Hard corals build reefs made of calcium carbonategrow for 100+ yrs and shape entire coastlines

    • Feed at night on drifting plankton and look fuzzy – tentacles of genus Symbiodinium a dinoflagellate

    • Corals get their color from these dinoflagellates


Special attributes of fire corals and siphonophores

Special Attributes of Fire Corals and Siphonophores

  • Class Hydrozoa – colonial, alternate b/w polyp and medusa in their lifecycle

  • Examples: Portuguese man-of-war

    • Has a fish like wish the same name

  • Siphonophores all sting


Special attributes of jellyfish

Special Attributes of Jellyfish

  • Class Scyphozoa – jellyfish, drift w/current, pulsate bodies to move, eat plankton + fish, grow up to 10’ long, larvae blooms can cause clouds 100 mi. long, prey of Leatherbacks/fish

    • Examples

      • Box Jellyfish

        • Kills humans


Simple marine worms 5 41

Simple Marine Worms (5-41)

  • 22 Phyla of 32 animal Phyla are worms (Whoa!)

  • You need to know 3 Phyla

    – Platyhelminthes – flat worms, mostly parasitic, 1 opening in body

    • Nemertea – semi-flat worms, carnivores,

    • Nemotoda – round worms, parasitic, 1 way digestive system,


Simple marine worms 5 411

Simple Marine Worms (5-41)

Platyhelminthes – the flat worms


Simple marine worms 5 412

Simple Marine Worms (5-41)

Nemertea – the ribbon worms


Simple marine worms 5 413

Simple Marine Worms (5-41)

Nematoda – round worms


Mollusks bag scraper and a foot 5 43

Mollusks – Bag, Scraper, and a Foot (5-43)

  • PhyllumMolluska – 100,000 species, 3 classes

    • Classes Gastropoda , Bivalvia, and Cephalopoda

  • General Characters of all Mollusks (Fig 5-46)

    • Mantle = muscular bag for motion/feeding

    • Muscular foot/tentacles, radulla are like teeth


Special attributes of class gastropoda

Special Attributes of Class Gastropoda

  • Characters: (most have 1 shell) snails, slugs, sea slugs, conch

  • Undergo torsion in development: body twists into a loop that rearranges organs and bring them back together into a spiral shell

  • Those w/o shells use toxins for defense


Special attributes of class gastropoda1

Special Attributes of Class Gastropoda


Special attributes of class bivalvia

Special Attributes of Class Bivalvia

  • Characters: (2 hinged shells) – no head, mantle acts as bag for filter feeding

  • Close shell for protection, pearls form layers of nacre (dirt surrounded by calcium carbonate)

  • Ex. 10,000 species of clams, oysters, and scallops


Special attributes of class bivalvia1

Special Attributes of Class Bivalvia


Special attributes of class cephalopoda

Special Attributes of Class Cephalopoda

  • Characters: (head-footed) – cuttlefish, squid, octopii

  • No shell, muscular foot = tentacles/arms, eyes

  • Siphon – water propeller

  • Chromatophores – color changing cells

  • Suckers for gripping


Special attributes of class cephalopoda1

Special Attributes of Class Cephalopoda


Echinoderms stars of the sea 5 57

Echinoderms – Stars of the Sea (5-57)

  • Phylum Echinodermata = means “spiny skin”

    • Exoskeleton, madreporite, water vascular system, tube feet, radial (adult), bilateral (larvae), eyespots

  • Examples: starfish, sea urchins, basket stars,


Echinoderms stars of the sea 5 571

Echinoderms – Stars of the Sea (5-57)

  • More Phylum Echinodermata Examples: Sand dollar, sea cucumber


Crustaceans underwater arthropods 5 51

Crustaceans- Underwater Arthropods – (5-51)

  • Phylum Arthropoda – (“bugs”)1 million species, segmented bodies, jointed legs, exoskelton of chitin.

    • SuperclassCrustacea – 2 antennae, manibiles for chewing, pair of appendages for each body segment, molt their exoskeletons


Crustaceans underwater arthropods

Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods

  • Special Attributes of Class Cirripedia

    • Barnacles

    • Free swimming larvae fuses itself to hard surface

    • Has a carapace and uses cirri to gather food


Crustaceans underwater arthropods1

Crustaceans – Underwater Arthropods

  • Class Copepoda – small, teardrop shaped, < 1mm (5-53)

  • Eat phytoplankton and zooplankton

  • Eaten by fish, krill, whale sharks, baleen whales

  • Fecal pellets recycle ocean nutrients rapidly


Invertebrate chordates 5 62

Invertebrate Chordates (5-62)

  • Characters

  • Examples


Vertebrates 40 000 species

Vertebrates – 40,000 species

  • Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata (64)

    • Characters of Subphylum Vertebrata

    • Top of all food webs, large, fast, complex, highly developed organisms w/ 4 limbs, complex eyes

    • Anthropomorphism - making human things human when they are not


Vertebrates the significance of class agnatha 5 64

Vertebrates (The Significance of Class Agnatha 5-64)

  • Jawless fish, shark/bony fish ancestor(?) where 1st three gill arches became the jaws of bony fish/sharks

  • Ex. Lampreys, hagfish, eels


Sharks and rays teeth and wings 5 65

Sharks and Rays – Teeth and Wings (5-65)

  • Class Condrichthyes, Subclass Elasmobranchii: 1000 species, have jaws, skeleton of cartilage a swim bladder, lateral line, gill slits, energy efficient, quick, inconspicuous predator

  • Efficient: cartilage lighter than bone, fins sit at angles and asymmetrical tails to provide lift, elastic skin, denticles not scales, teeth grow as conveyor belt (25,000 teeth in lifetime)

  • Ampullae of Lorenzini for electroreception


Sharks and rays teeth and wings 5 69 continued

Sharks and Rays – Teeth and Wings (5-69) Continued

  • Class Condrichthyes, Subclass Elasmobranchii:

    • Most do internal fertilization, few (1-10) mature offspring – some species do lay eggs

    • Shark fin soup is made by catching the sharks, cutting off the fins and dumping the shark overboard

    • Size of your hand to 46ft (Whale shark)


Subclass elasmobranchii

Subclass Elasmobranchii


Subclass elasmobranchii1

Subclass Elasmobranchii


Bony fish half the world s vertebrates 25 000 5 73

Bony Fish – Half the World’s Vertebrates – 25,000+ (5-73)

  • Characteristics of Bony Fish– Class Osteichthyes

    • Skeleton of bone, true jaws, scales, external reproduction (100++ eggs), fusiform shape

    • swim bladder (buoyancy control – get Nitrogen from bloodstream)

    • Lateral lines (detect vibrations – schooling and feeding), countershading (dark top, bright underside)


Swim bladder

Swim Bladder

What is it? What does it do?

  • Internal organ – an oblong gas sack

  • Controls buoyancy in the water column

  • Filled with Nitrogen and Oxygen gas

  • Gas comes from 2 places: gulping or from the bloodstream

References:

http://www.glossop-sea-angling-club.co.uk/webpages/venting_files/bladder1.gif


Lateral line

Lateral Line

  • A system of hollow fluid filled canals

  • Most species can be seen externally

  • Allow the fish to detect motion and vibrations

  • Important for:

    • Schooling

    • Predator detection

    • Prey detection

  • References

  • http://www.hatchesmagazine.com/images/12806.04.01.jpg

  • http://www.amazonian-fish.co.uk/images/plagioscon_squamosissimus.jpg


Fusiform

Fusiform

Structure: A type of shape…..

Side view: Spindle shaped which is broader at the head and a V-shaped tail.

Front view: compressed

Function: reduces drag and turbulance

References: http://www.fullpullsportfishing.com/images/fish/bf_tuna.jpg

http://www.marinebiology.org/images/bodyshape.GIF


Special attributes of orders clupeiformes and gadiformes 5 75

Special Attributes of Orders Clupeiformes and Gadiformes (5-75)

  • Clupeiformes

    • Small silvery fish, low on food chain (eat diatoms)

    • Account for ¼ of all fish caught

    • Ex. Anchovies, sardines, pilchards

  • Gadiformes

    • 1/6 of fish catch but close to commericial extinction

    • Ex. Cods, whiting, and haddock


Gadiformes melanogrammus aeglefinus haddock

GadiformesMelanogrammusaeglefinus - Haddock


Gadiformes ophiodon elongatus alaskan ling cod

GadiformesOphiodonelongatus - Alaskan Ling Cod


Marine reptiles cold blood and warm water 5 77

Marine Reptiles – Cold Blood and Warm Water (5-77)

  • Characters: few live in ocean, cold blooded, have lungs, internal reproduction(eggs)

  • Order Crocodilia – alligators, crocodiles, and caimans

  • Lives in estuaries, not truly a marine species


Order crocodilia alligators caimans and crocodiles

Order Crocodilia – Alligators, Caimans, and Crocodiles


Gators and caimans vs crocs

Gators and Caimans vs. Crocs

  • Jaw/Snout/Nose Width

    • Gators and Caimans: U shaped nose, wide jaws, built for crushing turtles shells

    • Crocs: more V shaped nose, narrow jaws


Gators and caimans vs crocs1

Gators and Caimans vs. Crocs

  • Tooth Placement

    • Gators: lower jaw more narrow so teeth in bottom jaw almost hidden

    • Crocs: upper and lower jaw the same size, top and bottom teeth interlock and show

    • Crocs: large 4th tooth


Special attributes of marine crocodiles turtles snakes and lizards

Special Attributes of Marine Crocodiles, Turtles, Snakes and Lizards

  • Order Chelonia (turtles and tortoises) – 7 marine species which eat plants/animals, all bycatch hazards, lay 100 – 120 eggs in dunes

  • Ex. Green sea turtle, Leatherback

  • Order Squamata – 61 sea snake species, cobra relatives, deadly venom,

    • Marine iguana only marine reptile – swims, dives, and is an herbivore (algae), Galapagos native


Order chelonia chelonia mydas green sea turtle

Order Chelonia– Cheloniamydas (Green sea turtle)


Order chelonia caretta caretta loggerhead sea turtle

Order Chelonia – Carettacaretta – Loggerhead sea turtle


Order squamata

Order Squamata

Aipyisuruslavevis– Olive sea snake

Laticaudacolubrina– Banded sea snake


Seabirds at flight over and in the ocean 5 81

Seabirds – At Flight Over and In the Ocean (5-81)

  • Characters: Class Aves – 10,000 feathered species of birds, forelimbs, 4 chambered heart, internal fertilization of eggs,

  • Prey on: fish, crustaceans, mollusks, Predators: sharks

  • Indicate marine ecosystem health, guano

  • Adaptations: bills, longer wings, webbed feet,


Marine mammals warm blood in cold water 5 83

Marine Mammals – Warm Blood in Cold Water (5-83)

  • Class Mammalia:

    • top of food web, need extra energy for thermoregulation, breathe air

    • Have myoglobin, mammalian diving reflex, flexible skin, echolocation (dolphins and whales)

  • Examples

    • Dolphins, whales, seals, sea lions


Chapter 5

Can you name these 3 pinnipeds?


Special attributes of seals and sea lions

Special Attributes of Seals and Sea Lions

  • Order Pinnipedia – examples and characters

    • Seals: no ear flaps, hind flippers point backwards, crawls on stomach

    • Sea Lions: ear flaps, hind flippers can rotate hind flippers forward, sit more upright, run by pivoting

    • Walrus: no earl flaps, can rotate hind flippers like sea lions


Special attributes of dolphins whales and porpoises 5 86

Special Attributes of Dolphins, Whales, and Porpoises (5-86)

  • Order Cetacea – fish like mammals, breathe through dorsal blow holes, no hind limbs, muscular tail, blubber

  • 2 suborders – use echolocation (hunting/communicating)

    • Mysticeti – baleen whales (humpback, gray, blue), all big b/c consume at bottom of food chain

    • Odontoceti – toothed whales (sperm whale, orcas, dolphins, porpoise) , keen ability to learn


Special attributes of dugongs and manatees

Special Attributes of Dugongs and Manatees

  • Order Sirenia (4 species, all mammals + herbivores)

    • Manatees – elephant relative, rare, killed by boat screws, aka “sea cow”, native to northern S. America


Marine mammals and human interactions

Marine Mammals and Human Interactions

  • http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504784_162-20011367-10391705.html


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