# Capacity of a Single Runway - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Capacity of a Single Runway. Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann . Maximum Throughput Capacity (MCT). Measure of capacity of the runway Based on the following assumptions: Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures Air Traffic Control rule – no simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO)

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Capacity of a Single Runway

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## Capacity of a Single Runway

Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann

### Maximum Throughput Capacity (MCT)

• Measure of capacity of the runway

• Based on the following assumptions:

• Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures

• Air Traffic Control rule – no simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO)

• Air Traffic Control rule – safe Wake Vortex Separation Distances between two flights

• Static fleet mix

• Approach procedure does not change

### MCT of a Runway

Five considerations:

• 1. ATC Safety Rule: no Simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO)

• 2. ATC Safety Rule: Maintain Wake Vortex Separation Distance between lead and follow aircraft

• 3. ATC Controller/Pilot Separation Control Accuracy: ATC/Pilots insert a buffer distance to avoid violating separation rules

• 4. Fleet Mix: determines the type of aircraft in the lead-follow pairs. The type of aircraft determines the separation distance used. Small aircraft following large aircraft require longer distances than large aircraft following large aircraft.

• 5. Final Approach Path Distance: the length of time lead-follow aircraft fly the approach in pairs and separation

## Maximum Throughput Capacity for a Homogeneous Fleet Mix

### MCT for Homogeneous Fleet Mix

• Simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO):

• MCT = 3600 seconds/ROT

• Wake Vortex Separation Distance

• Determined by separation distance

• Wake vortices generated off wing-tips of aircraft

• Strength of the vortex is governed by the weight, speed, and shape of the wing of the generating aircraft

### Minimum Separation Distance

• MCT = 3600 / (s/v) where t = s/v

• t = inter-arrival time

• s = distance between aircraft at runway threshold

• v = groundspeed of aircraft

• Example: Heavy following Heavy, t=96 seconds

• MCT = 36000 / 96 = 37.5 flights/hour

### ATC/Controller Separation Buffer

• Separation distance is determined through coordination of ATC and pilot

• Separation Buffer:

• MCT = 3600 / ((s/v)+b)

• t = inter-arrival time

• s = distance between aircraft at runway threshold

• v = groundspeed of aircraft

• b = buffer

• Example: Heavy following Heavy, t=96 seconds

• MCT = 36000 / (96 + 10)= 34 flights/hour

### MCT for a Homogeneous Fleet Mix

• MCT = Min(MCTSRO, MCTWVSD, MCTWVSDB)

• SRO = Single Runway Occupancy

• WVSD = Wake Vortex Separation Distance

• WVSDB = Wake Vortex Separation Distance and Buffer (ATC/Controller Buffer)

• Simplified to:

• MCT = Min(MCTSRO, MCTWVSDB)

## Maximum Throughput Capacity for a Non-Homogeneous Fleet Mix

### MTC-Non Homogenous Fleet Mix

MTC = Min ( MTCSRO, MTCWVSDB)

### MTC- Simultaneous Runway Occupancy Rule

• Runway Occupancy Time (ROT)

### Computing E[ROT]

E[ROT] = Σi(pi * ROTi)

E[ROT] = (.3*80) + (.2*65) + (.25*50) + (.25* 45)

= 60.75

### MTC-Simultaneous Runway Occupancy Rule

MTCSRO= 3600/ E[ROT]

MTCSRO= 3600/60.75

= 59.26

### MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule

• The groundspeed of the aircraft (vj)

### MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule

• Inter-arrival time (tij)

• Inter-arrvial time matrix T

E[Tij] = ΣiΣj (pij *( Tij))

### MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule

Tij = sij/vj for compression case

Tij = ((r + sij)/vj ) – (r/ vi ) for separation case

### Compression Case

• Compression Time = r/(Vj – Vi)

• Cases: H-H, H-L, H-M, H-S, L-L, L-M, L-S, M-M, M-S, S-S

### Separation Case

• Separation Distance- additional distance at the runway threshold caused by Lead faster than Follow

• Separation Time= ((r + sij)/vj ) – (r/ vi )

• Cases: S-M, S-L, SH, M-L, M-H, H-L.

### MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule

MTC = 3600 seconds/E[tij]

E[tij]= (.09*120)+(.06*188)+…+(.06*120)

=141.9

MCT = 3600 seconds/141.9

= 25.368

### MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule with Buffer Distance

MTC = 3600/E[tij]

Where tij = Tij + b

E[tij]= 146.9 seconds

MTC= 3600/ 146.9

= 24.505 arrivals per hour

### MTC-Non Homogenous Fleet Mix

Recall

MTC = Min ( MTCSRO, MTCWVSDB)

MTC = Min (59.26, 24.505)

= 24.505 arrivals per hour