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Capacity of a Single Runway. Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann . Maximum Throughput Capacity (MCT). Measure of capacity of the runway Based on the following assumptions: Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures Air Traffic Control rule – no simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO)

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capacity of a single runway

Capacity of a Single Runway

Kimberly Afcha and Danielle Hettmann

maximum throughput capacity mct
Maximum Throughput Capacity (MCT)
  • Measure of capacity of the runway
  • Based on the following assumptions:
    • Continuous supply of arrivals and/or departures
    • Air Traffic Control rule – no simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO)
    • Air Traffic Control rule – safe Wake Vortex Separation Distances between two flights
    • Static fleet mix
    • Approach procedure does not change
mct of a runway
MCT of a Runway

Five considerations:

  • 1. ATC Safety Rule: no Simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO)
  • 2. ATC Safety Rule: Maintain Wake Vortex Separation Distance between lead and follow aircraft
  • 3. ATC Controller/Pilot Separation Control Accuracy: ATC/Pilots insert a buffer distance to avoid violating separation rules
  • 4. Fleet Mix: determines the type of aircraft in the lead-follow pairs. The type of aircraft determines the separation distance used. Small aircraft following large aircraft require longer distances than large aircraft following large aircraft.
  • 5. Final Approach Path Distance: the length of time lead-follow aircraft fly the approach in pairs and separation
mct for homogeneous fleet mix
MCT for Homogeneous Fleet Mix
  • Simultaneous Runway Occupancy (SRO):
    • MCT = 3600 seconds/ROT
  • Wake Vortex Separation Distance
    • Determined by separation distance
    • Wake vortices generated off wing-tips of aircraft
    • Strength of the vortex is governed by the weight, speed, and shape of the wing of the generating aircraft
minimum separation distance
Minimum Separation Distance
  • MCT = 3600 / (s/v) where t = s/v
    • t = inter-arrival time
    • s = distance between aircraft at runway threshold
    • v = groundspeed of aircraft
    • Example: Heavy following Heavy, t=96 seconds
      • MCT = 36000 / 96 = 37.5 flights/hour
atc controller separation buffer
ATC/Controller Separation Buffer
  • Separation distance is determined through coordination of ATC and pilot
  • Separation Buffer:
    • MCT = 3600 / ((s/v)+b)
    • t = inter-arrival time
    • s = distance between aircraft at runway threshold
    • v = groundspeed of aircraft
    • b = buffer
    • Example: Heavy following Heavy, t=96 seconds
      • MCT = 36000 / (96 + 10)= 34 flights/hour
mct for a homogeneous fleet mix
MCT for a Homogeneous Fleet Mix
  • MCT = Min(MCTSRO, MCTWVSD, MCTWVSDB)
    • SRO = Single Runway Occupancy
    • WVSD = Wake Vortex Separation Distance
    • WVSDB = Wake Vortex Separation Distance and Buffer (ATC/Controller Buffer)
  • Simplified to:
  • MCT = Min(MCTSRO, MCTWVSDB)
mtc non homogenous fleet mix
MTC-Non Homogenous Fleet Mix

MTC = Min ( MTCSRO, MTCWVSDB)

mtc simultaneous runway occupancy rule
MTC- Simultaneous Runway Occupancy Rule
  • Runway Occupancy Time (ROT)
  • Probability of lead-follow
computing e rot
Computing E[ROT]

E[ROT] = Σi(pi * ROTi)

E[ROT] = (.3*80) + (.2*65) + (.25*50) + (.25* 45)

= 60.75

mtc simultaneous runway occupancy rule1
MTC-Simultaneous Runway Occupancy Rule

MTCSRO= 3600/ E[ROT]

MTCSRO= 3600/60.75

= 59.26

mtc wake vortex separation rule
MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule
  • The separation distance between the lead and the follow (sij)
  • The groundspeed of the aircraft (vj)
  • The probability of a lead-follow pair (pij)
mtc wake vortex separation rule1
MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule
  • Inter-arrival time (tij)
  • Inter-arrvial time matrix T

E[Tij] = ΣiΣj (pij *( Tij))

mtc wake vortex separation rule2
MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule

Tij = sij/vj for compression case

Tij = ((r + sij)/vj ) – (r/ vi ) for separation case

compression case
Compression Case
  • Lead slower than Follow
  • Compression distance- additional distance used by Follow as it catches up to Lead
  • Compression Time = r/(Vj – Vi)
  • Cases: H-H, H-L, H-M, H-S, L-L, L-M, L-S, M-M, M-S, S-S
separation case
Separation Case
  • Lead faster than Follow
  • Separation Distance- additional distance at the runway threshold caused by Lead faster than Follow
  • Separation Time= ((r + sij)/vj ) – (r/ vi )
  • Cases: S-M, S-L, SH, M-L, M-H, H-L.
mtc wake vortex separation rule3
MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule

MTC = 3600 seconds/E[tij]

E[tij]= (.09*120)+(.06*188)+…+(.06*120)

=141.9

MCT = 3600 seconds/141.9

= 25.368

mtc wake vortex separation rule with buffer distance
MTC-Wake Vortex Separation Rule with Buffer Distance

MTC = 3600/E[tij]

Where tij = Tij + b

E[tij]= 146.9 seconds

MTC= 3600/ 146.9

= 24.505 arrivals per hour

mtc non homogenous fleet mix1
MTC-Non Homogenous Fleet Mix

Recall

MTC = Min ( MTCSRO, MTCWVSDB)

MTC = Min (59.26, 24.505)

= 24.505 arrivals per hour

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