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Chapter 24 – Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order

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Chapter 24 – Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order. THEME: Industrialization altered the nature of European overseas expansion – European partition of the world occurred in haphazard fashion. Dutch gain Java Wanted it for its Spices

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Chapter 24 – Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order

THEME: Industrialization altered the nature of European overseas expansion – European partition of the world occurred in haphazard fashion

slide4

Dutch gain Java

    • Wanted it for its Spices
    • Initial control was only in the interior of Java
  • After 1670 the Dutch expanded their control over all of Java
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British rule in India:

  • British East India Companytake sides in local wars as the Mughal Empire disintegrated – Intervention into local squabbles among indigenous in return for land similar to the Dutch in Java
  • Sepoys – Indian troops, trained in European style; served the French and British armies
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Willingness of Indians to serve in British armies contributed a powerful land force to the empire

  • India became major outlet for British manufactured goods and overseas investment as well as a major supplier of raw materials

Sepoy

  • Europeans formed new class on top of existing hierarchies
slide7

Raj – The British political establishment in India

  • Robert Clive– Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of the Raj in northern India
  • Presidencies – Three districts that comprised the bulk of British-ruled territories in India during the early 19th century
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Agents of the East India Company were stationed at their courts to ensure loyalty from natives.

  • By beginning of the 19th century, India was becoming Britain’s major colonial possession
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Lord Charles Cornwallis: British official who reformed the British East India Company corruption during the 1790’s

slide10

Tropical dependencies – Western European possessions in Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific where small numbers of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations

  • White dominions – A settlement colony, such as those in North America and Australia, where European settlers made up the majority of the population
  • Settler colonies – Colonies in South Africa, New Zealand, Algeria, Kenya and Hawaii, where minority European populations lived among a majority of indigenous peoples.
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Cecil Rhodes– British entrepreneur in South Africa; manipulated political situation to gain entry to the diamonds and gold discovered in the Boer republics

  • *analyze the political cartoon!*     
slide13

Boer War (1899-1902) – Fought between the British and Afrikaners; British victory and postwar policies left the African population of South Africa under Afrikaner control

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Great Trek– Migration into the South African interior of thousands of Afrikaners seeking to escape British control

imperialism in africa
Imperialism In Africa
  • The Congress of Berlin – 1885 – Otto von Bismarck called a conference to discuss how European countries wishing to acquire African colonies should proceed. Bismarck wanted peace in Europe, not a large empire
  • A nation could only claim land if it had settlements or colonies on the land itself – slavery outlawed in occupied lands
imperialism in china the pacific
Imperialism in China & the Pacific
  • In Asia, Britain lead the way by its example in India
  • Only three Asian countries remain independent – China, Japan, and Siam (Thailand)
  • By 1914 France hadIndochina (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos), the Dutch controlled the East Indies (Indonesia), the United States had the Philippines, and Germany had special rights in China.
imperialism in india
Imperialism in India

Old Imperialism – 15th and 16th c. Portugal, Spain, England, France – “Gold, God, and Glory”

New Imperialism –late 19th c. wanted new natural resources; competition; markets for manufactured goods; done in Africa, India, east/southeast Asia

  • Under the new imperialism, the Europeans managed to conquer or subjugate about half the world’s non-European population
  • Industrialization encouraged imperialism!!
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Justification for Imperialism:

  • Europeans saw Africans, native Australians, & Pacific Islanders as primitive savages plagued by war, poverty, and disease.
  • Felt a sense of duty to “civilize” the non-white peoples of the unindustrialized lands.
  • J.S. Hobson argument in his book, Imperialism -the motive was economic  A few men of great wealth were behind imperialist policies, to gain more wealth
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Sepoy “Mutiny” (Great Rebellion) – 1857

  • Reason – new bullet – had to bite off tip  required grease
    • Cows – sacred to Hindus
    • Pigs – sacred to Muslims
  • Economic, social, and political reasons as well
slide23

Boxer Rebellion – 1898 – Eight Nation Alliance – Japan, Russia, Britain, France, U.S., Germany, Italy, & Austria-Hungary vs. China

    • the issue: expel foreigners from China
    • the winner: Foreigners
    • Results: Qing dynasty weakens; 1912 – Qing dynasty is toppled
  • Extraterritorial – foreigners cannot be tried by foreign court
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Japanese Industrialization & Imperialism

  • Japan becomes “westernized”; continue imperialism in Asia
  • Japan annexes Korea and takes Formosa from China
russo japanese war russia vs japan 1904 1905
Russo-Japanese War; Russia vs. Japan; 1904-1905
  • Causes: Japan & Russia both expanding territorial control in East/Southeast Asia. Russia gains partial control of Manchuria (north/northeast China) and in Korea. These moves upset the Japanese, who were trying to gain influence there as well.
  • Results: brings recognition to Japan as a major world power; leads to the Russian Revolution of 1905 (problems for Russia)
  • Ends with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905):
    • Russia had to withdraw troops from Manchuria and give Korea to the Japanese.
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