Results Section. Shainn-Wei Wang, Ph.D. NCKU, College of Medicine Institute of Molecular Medicine. “What did you find” is in Results. Dogma. Why a scientific format?. Logic: U niform manner for efficient communication of scientific findings Simplicity:
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Shainn-Wei Wang, Ph.D.
NCKU, College of Medicine
Institute of Molecular Medicine
Uniform manner for efficient communication of scientific findings
allows the paper to be read at several different levels
1. Analyze and interpret the results once
the data are collected
2. Write the Table and Figure legends
3. Write the Results Section
(a hidden title…should be a topic sentence that allows you to describe your observations or analysis)
subtitle 1: you are going to talk about the yields of mutant and wt particles (this may include a suggestion of meaning)
subtitle 2: you are going to talk about the amounts of RNA inside the mutant and wt particles (this may include a suggestion of meaning)
subtitle 3: you are going to give a major conclusion (key result) or suggestions for your observations, if you think the data are very complicated and require another paragraph to get across the idea of your observations
related to your data
be observed in both pM1-2/BR/PR (Fig.
2a) and pHXB2/PR (Fig. 2b), suggesting
that the aberrant morphology is more likely
the result of the mutation in PR than in
NC. (suggestions should be closely related to your data)
2. Table body
1. Figure body
better to have
a short title
- explain the information that is being presented
- made to stand alone
1. Save words
…it is most frequently localized in the nucleus
The sky was blue (Fig. 3)
Factor X advances the cell cycle (Fig. 1), indicating that ...
2. Consistency “Results)
after three washes the phages were added...
4. Avoid Redundancy “Results)
5. Avoid Emotions
6. Avoid Uncertainty “Results)
This indicates (suggests) that factor A interacts with factor B
7. Avoid Ambiguous terms
9. Comma “Results)
...the slides were washed, and the phages were dropped....
„Next, we analyzed............“
„There, the difference........“
10. Paragraphs “Results)
11. Style “Results)
DNA was precipitated with alcohol
- be simple and concise
- make sure of the meaning of every word
12. Possessiveness “Results)
we, we, we, we, we, I, I, I, I, I, I, our, us, ....
...localizes to the contig previously published (Ref.)...
13. Importance (Avoid self-adulation!!!)
-...we have found for the first time..
... this study presents additional (or similar) information....
-... we were the first to report....
-... we have for a long time predicted and now we have shown...
... this study confirms our previously published ideas ...
14. Emphasis “Results)
15. Avoid alluding to other sections in the manuscript
17. Avoid extensive interpretations in the Results
”Analysis of the resulting phages showed ....!
19.Use a good letter size, avoid wasting space.
“The incidence of 20% broken chromosomes of which 10% had gene X mutations shows a preferential...”
21. Nomenclature Results
22. Miscellaneous Results
...many genes have been....
Most aberrations were concordant...........
Several data suggest that.......... these data were ascertained.....
- ...single clones were obtained and cell lysates prepared ... (don’t omit the verb)
...single clones were obtained, and cell lysates were prepared
Shainn-Wei Wang, Ph.D.
NCKU, College of Medicine
Institute of Molecular Medicine
What do these findings mean? Results
Your answer is the Discussions
1. Complete your Introduction and Results sections before you begin writing the discussion.
2. The figures and tables in the Results section will be particularly important as you begin to think about your discussion.
The following steps may be helpful to you as you begin to organize your discussion (Gray et al., 1988) :
We have carried out a small pilot study to investigate whether SIV-specific mucosal immunity can be induced by a DNA vaccine candidate that produces noninfectious virus and whether virus-specific IgA antibodies are a desirable component of a vaccine aimed toward the prevention of mucosally transmitted AIDS. From this study, we can infer the following. (i) A DNA construct that expresses all the SIV proteins except Nef and produces a noninfectious virus due to mutations in three structural genes is a safe and immunogenic reagent in macaques. (ii) This DNA vaccine administered to macaques in a liposome formulation at the rectal mucosa can stimulate significant levels of antigen-specific IgA in mucosal secretions. These levels are higher than those achieved through natural infection. (iii) Virus-specific IgA antibodies present in rectal secretions may have a role in decreasing the infectivity of the initial viral inoculum but alone are unlikely to be sufficient to prevent infection. (iv) Simultaneous DNA vaccination via multiple routes as described here did not result in efficient priming of various immunological compartments.
Example 2, the first paragraph Results
The retroviral NC protein appears to have roles at multiple stages of the virus life cycle. As a domain of the Gag precursor, it is involved in Gag-Gag interactions that are critical to assembly and in RNA binding and packaging (see references 46 and 51 and references therein). The processed NC p7 may be involved in early steps of the infection process (48). In this report, we show that the basic charge present in NC is crucial to NC-RNA interactions but not as crucial to Gag-Gag interactions at the cell membrane. No major defects in membrane association or in the amount of Gag released in the supernatant were observed for the pM1-2/BR mutant. Therefore, it is unlikely that the basic residues present in the two zinc binding motifs mediate the role played by NC in virus assembly. We also show that there is a direct correlation between the percentage of Gag that is associated with RNA and the amount of Gag that can be pelleted as particle associated. Particles that band at the appropriate density for a retrovirus are particles that incorporate RNA. Two possible interpretations can be offered for the origin of the Gag proteins found in the supernatant that are not particle associated. They can derive from RNA-deficient, barge-associated Gag complexes that do not complete the proper assembly and budding process and are released in some manner from the cell. Alternatively, assembly and budding are completed successfully, independently of the presence of RNA in the barge complexes; particles that do not package RNA are highly unstable after release and become quickly disrupted, leading to the accumulation of viral proteins in the supernatant. We favor the latter hypothesis.
Scientists find the organs responsible
for the leaping of a frog
The small size of the groups does not lend statistical power to any conclusions about protection. Nevertheless, it is intriguing that the observed protection of one in three animals in two of the vaccine groups is comparable to the rate of success obtained in other SIV DNA vaccine studies (13, 45). A more
thorough evaluation of the role of mucosal immunity in protection from infection will require a more extensive investigation with a larger number of animals. Nevertheless, our ability to easily induce a high level of SIV-specific IgA in rectal secretions by local DNA vaccination provides a simple immunization strategy that could be easily transferred to the clinical
setting, if stimulation of mucosal immunity is a desirable feature in an SIV and/or HIV vaccine.
Taken together, the data presented here provide evidence in support of the role played by the viral RNA in particle structure stability but exclude a role for NC-mediated RNA binding in assembly. Our results also indicate that processing is the event that requires appropriate NC-RNA interactions to retain
particle stability. Thus, the viral genomic RNA molecule functions both as the genome of the retrovirus and as an essential structural component of mature retroviral virions via its interaction with NC.
limitations of the findings, past, present,
and modal auxiliaries (modifiers) may be
Syntax must be bad, having both sin and tax in it.
Be careful about them…
Some mistakes that we do not make…
At last and finally are rather similar in meaning as they suggest that we have been waiting for something for a long time (in the end). However, at last is normally used only for things that you are pleased have happened whereas finally can be used for both positive and negative things. By the end means at some point before the end