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Nutrition for Athletes. Determinants of the Athlete’s Energy Requirements. During intense exercise Carbohydrate stored in muscles and liver (glycogen) is predominant fuel source During prolonged exercise Fat stores are predominant fuel source Fitness level of the athlete

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Determinants of the athlete s energy requirements
Determinants of the Athlete’s Energy Requirements

  • During intense exercise

    • Carbohydrate stored in muscles and liver (glycogen) is predominant fuel source

  • During prolonged exercise

    • Fat stores are predominant fuel source

  • Fitness level of the athlete

    • Well trained endurance athletes burn fat more efficiently, sparing limited glycogen stores


Easy formula for estimating the body s calorie requirements
Easy Formula for Estimating the Body’s Calorie Requirements

  • Sedentary person

    • Weight (kg) x 25

  • Moderately active person

    • Weight (kg) x 30

  • Active person (endurance athlete)

    • Weight (kg) x 40

  • Underweight person

    • Weight (kg) x 45

  • kg = lbs / 2.2


Recommendations for athletes
Recommendations for Athletes Requirements

  • Carbohydrate intake

  • Pre-exercise meal

  • Carbohydrate loading

  • Protein intake

  • Fat intake

  • Post-exercise recovery


Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates Requirements

  • Non-essential nutrient (human body can make sugar)

  • Simple (sugars) and Complex (starches)

  • Major fuel source for exercising muscle

  • Athletes should ingest 6 to10 g/kg/day

    • 60 to 70% of total calories should come from carbohydrates

    • Complex carbohydrates (starches) are preferable

  • During exercise

    • Athletes should consume 25 to 30 g of carbohydrate for every 30 minutes of exercise (100-120kcal)

    • Athletes should drink 6 to 8 ounces of water or sports drink for every 10 to 15 minutes of exercise


Carbohydrates1
Carbohydrates Requirements

  • After exercise

    • Athletes should consume 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg immediately post exercise and again one hour later

      • To replace muscle glycogen stores

      • To prevent gradual depletion of muscle glycogen stores over time caused by repetitive daily bouts of heavy exercise

      • To decrease muscle breakdown


Why complex carbohydrates
Why Complex Carbohydrates? Requirements

  • Compared to ingesting simple carbohydrates, ingesting complex carbohydrates:

    • Increases muscle glycogen stores better

    • Improves performance and delays fatigue

    • Promotes faster stomach emptying

    • Causes less stomach upset and indigestion

    • Leads to lower blood sugar and insulin levels

    • Provides other beneficial nutrients

      • Fiber, vitamins and minerals


Pre exercise meal
Pre-exercise Meal Requirements

  • Importance

    • Less hunger before and during exercise

    • Maintains optimum glycogen stores

  • Recommendations

    • Emphasize complex carbohydrates (starches)

      • 1 to 4 g/kg about 1 to 4 hours prior to event

      • Consume less closer to event

    • Avoid high fat and high protein foods

      • Slower gastric emptying can cause stomach upset

    • Avoid high fiber or gas forming foods

      • Can lead to cramping abdominal pain


Carbohydrate loading
Carbohydrate Loading Requirements

  • Increases the body’s pre-exercise glycogen stores by 50 to 100%

  • Benefits endurance athletes who compete for longer than 90 minutes

    • Can increase endurance up to 20%

    • Can increase performance by 2 to 3%


Carbohydrate loading one example of how
Carbohydrate Loading: RequirementsOne Example of How

Days prior to eventExercise durationCarbohydrate intake

6 90 minutes 5 g/kg/day

5 40 minutes 5 g/kg/day

4 40 minutes 5 g/kg/day

3 20 minutes 10 g/kg/day

2 20 minutes 10 g/kg/day

1 rest 10 g/kg/day


Protein
Protein Requirements

  • Athletes require more protein than non-athletes

    • 12 to 18% of total calories should come from protein

    • Protein intake should be tailored to type of training

      • 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg/day recommended for endurance athletes

      • 1.7 to 1.8 g/kg/day recommended for strength athletes

  • Average American diet provides 1.4 g/kg/day

  • Adequate calorie intake is just as important as adequate protein intake for building muscles

  • Too much protein intake can be bad

    • Excess protein calories are stored as fat

    • Excess protein intake can lead to dehydration and may contribute to kidney problems


Fat Requirements

  • Major source of energy especially at lower exercise intensity

  • 25 to 30% of total calories should come from fat

    • Less than 10% of total calories should come from saturated fats

  • Cholesterol intake should be less than 300 mg/day

  • Average American diet provides 37% of total calories from fat


Post exercise recovery
Post Exercise Recovery Requirements

  • 1g of CHO per Kg body weight

  • CHO : Protein = 1:4

  • Take as much of this in as possible in the first 30min-2hours post workout


Beet juice
Beet Juice? Requirements

  • Why is this the next big thing...

    Antioxidants and nitrates

    http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/beet-it-to-exercise-longer-try-beetroot-juice-2095848.html


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